Said to them.
‘How can they say
That the Christ,
Is David’s son?’”
Εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτούς Πῶς λέγουσιν τὸν Χριστὸν εἶναι Δαυεὶδ υἱόν;
Luke indicated that Jesus asked them (Εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτούς) how they could say (Πῶς λέγουσιν) that the Christ Messiah would be the son of David (τὸν Χριστὸν εἶναι Δαυεὶδ υἱόν)? There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 22:41-42, and Mark, chapter 12:35, but Jesus was sparing with the Pharisees and the Scribes, not a vague “they,” as here in Luke. However, Mark was closer to Luke. Mark said while Jesus was teaching in the Temple (διδάσκων ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ), he questioned them saying (Καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἔλεγεν) how can the Scribes say (Πῶς λέγουσιν οἱ γραμματεῖς) that the Messiah Christ is the son of David (ὅτι ὁ Χριστὸς υἱὸς Δαυείδ ἐστιν)? This was a complex question that Jesus posed to them. He seemed to imply that the Christ Messiah was the son of David. Matthew indicated that the Pharisees had gathered together (Συνηγμένων δὲ τῶν Φαρισαίων) around Jesus. Thus, he asked them a simple question (ἐπηρώτησεν αὐτοὺς ὁ Ἰησοῦς). Here Jesus posed the question (λέγων) whose son would the Messiah Christ be (Τί ὑμῖν δοκεῖ περὶ τοῦ Χριστοῦ; τίνος υἱός ἐστιν)? The Pharisees responded (λέγουσιν) that the Messiah Christ would be the son of David (αὐτῷ Τοῦ Δαυείδ). This was the traditional Jewish response based on Psalm 110:1, that the Messiah would be the son or descendant of David. How was Jesus the son of David?
“Can any of you,
Add a single hour
To your lifespan?”
τίς δὲ ἐξ ὑμῶν μεριμνῶν δύναται ἐπὶ τὴν ἡλικίαν αὐτοῦ προσθεῖναι πῆχυν;
Luke indicated that Jesus posed a question. Are any of them able (τίς δὲ ἐξ ὑμῶν…δύναται), by worrying or being anxious (μεριμνῶν), add a single hour to their lifespan (ἐπὶ τὴν ἡλικίαν αὐτοῦ προσθεῖναι πῆχυν)? Once again, Matthew, chapter 6:27, had a similar Jesus saying, almost word for word, indicating a common Q source. Matthew had Jesus ask them if worrying was going to add one cubit or one hour to their lifespan or age (τίς δὲ ἐξ ὑμῶν μεριμνῶν δύναται προσθεῖναι ἐπὶ τὴν ἡλικίαν αὐτοῦ πῆχυν ἕνα)? Probably, the opposite is true. Don’t worry! Be happy! How have you increased your lifespan?
“The lawyer said.
Who showed him
Jesus said to him.
ὁ δὲ εἶπεν Ὁ ποιήσας τὸ ἔλεος μετ’ αὐτοῦ. εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς Πορεύου καὶ σὺ ποίει ὁμοίως.
Luke finished his unique story. The lawyer responded to Jesus (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν). He said that the one who showed the wounded man mercy and compassion (Ὁ ποιήσας τὸ ἔλεος μετ’ αὐτοῦ) was the good neighbor. Then Jesus remarked (εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς) that he should go on his way and do likewise (Πορεύου καὶ σὺ ποίει ὁμοίως). There was a very satisfying ending to this story of the Good Samaritan. Both the lawyer and Jesus were satisfied. The lawyer gave the right answer by saying that the true neighbor was the merciful and compassionate Samaritan. He did not in fact use the term Samaritan. He merely called him the compassionate one. Jesus then came back to the original question that this lawyer had posed about what he needed to gain eternal life. He told this lawyer to act just like the Good Samaritan had if he wanted to inherit eternal life, the path to eternal life. Are you willing to follow it?
A certain lawyer
To test Jesus.
What must I do
To inherit eternal life?’”
Καὶ ἰδοὺ νομικός τις ἀνέστη ἐκπειράζων αὐτὸν λέγων Διδάσκαλε, τί ποιήσας ζωὴν αἰώνιον κληρονομήσω;
Luke said that just then, a certain lawyer stood up (Καὶ ἰδοὺ νομικός τις ἀνέστη) to test Jesus (ἐκπειράζων αὐτὸν). He said, calling Jesus a teacher (λέγων Διδάσκαλε), what did he have to do to inherit eternal life (τί ποιήσας ζωὴν αἰώνιον κληρονομήσω)? Although there was a question like this in all 3 synoptics, there are nuanced differences. Matthew, chapter 22:35-36, had a Pharisee lawyer ask the question about the greatest commandment, and not about eternal life. Mark, chapter 12:28, had a Scribe, not a Pharisee lawyer ask the same question about the greatest commandment. In Luke, here, there was an unnamed lawyer, probably an expert in the Mosaic law, who wanted to know about how to gain eternal life. Mark had this unnamed Scribe approach Jesus, because he had heard the disciples discussing, disputing, or arguing with each other. He saw how Jesus had answered their questions so well. He was not there to test him, as here in Luke and Matthew, but he did question Jesus. Matthew had a lawyer, who was a Pharisee, question Jesus to explicitly test him. This Pharisee lawyer probably was someone skilled in the Mosaic law. He addressed Jesus in a very respectful tone calling him “Teacher” or rabbi (Διδάσκαλε), like Luke. He wanted to know which commandment of the law was the greatest, since there were 613 commandments in late Judaism. Thus, it would seem like a legitimate question with so many commandments or laws. Luke had the question about eternal life, but the other 2 synoptics questioned Jesus about the most important commandment. These questions were related, but not the same. 3 different people, with different motives, posed this question. Do you question people to learn something or to test them?
“But some of the Pharisees
‘Why are you doing
What is not lawful
To do on the Sabbath?’”
τινὲς δὲ τῶν Φαρισαίων εἶπαν Τί ποιεῖτε ὃ οὐκ ἔξεστιν τοῖς σάββασιν;
As per usual, the Pharisees pop up to complain and question the disciples of Jesus. Luke said that some of the Pharisees said (τινὲς δὲ τῶν Φαρισαίων εἶπαν) that what the disciples of Jesus were doing was not lawful to do on the Sabbath (Τί ποιεῖτε ὃ οὐκ ἔξεστιν τοῖς σάββασιν). They posed it as a question. Matthew, chapter 12:2, and Mark, chapter 2:24, are similar to Luke, so that Mark may be the source of this incident. Matthew said that Pharisees saw the disciples of Jesus plucking the grain on the Sabbath. Deuteronomy, chapter 25:24-25, stated that it was okay to pluck the ears with your hand, but you could not put a sickle to your neighbor’s standing grain or carry it away in a container. However, Exodus, chapter 34:21, explicitly said that you could not harvest grain on the Sabbath, but did not mention any hand picking. Thus, the Pharisees said to Jesus that his disciples were doing unlawful things on the Sabbath by plucking the grain Notice that Jesus was not doing this, only his disciples were.
“Which is easier?
Are forgiven you!’
Or to say.
τί ἐστιν εὐκοπώτερον, εἰπεῖν Ἀφέωνταί σοι αἱ ἁμαρτίαι σου, ἢ εἰπεῖν Ἔγειρε καὶ περιπάτει;
Luke indicated that Jesus asked which was easier to say (τί ἐστιν εὐκοπώτερον)? Your sins are forgiven you (εἰπεῖν Ἀφέωνταί σοι αἱ ἁμαρτίαι σου) or stand up and walk (ἢ εἰπεῖν Ἔγειρε καὶ περιπάτει). Mark, chapter 2:9, and Matthew, chapter 9:8, are almost word for word to Luke, so that Mark might be the source of this saying. Mark and Matthew said the same thing about the healing and forgiving of sins for the paralytic. Jesus posed the question which was it easier to do, to say to the paralytic that your sins are forgiven or to say get up, take your pallet, and walk. Jesus seemed to make an equivalence between the two options, forgiving sins or healing a paralyzed man.
Calls him Lord.
So how can he be
The large crowd
Was listening to him
αὐτὸς Δαυεὶδ λέγει αὐτὸν Κύριον, καὶ πόθεν αὐτοῦ ἐστιν υἱός; Καὶ ὁ πολὺς ὄχλος ἤκουεν αὐτοῦ ἡδέως.
There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 22:35-37, and Luke, chapter 20:45. What did David mean when he called the future Messiah Christ, a son of David? The traditional belief was that the Messiah Christ would be the son or descendent of David. Jesus then posed this big question. Mark indicated that Jesus asked how can David call the Messiah Lord (αὐτὸς Δαυεὶδ λέγει αὐτὸν Κύριον) and yet be the son of David (καὶ πόθεν αὐτοῦ ἐστιν υἱός)? This was a trick question. Why would David call his future son or descendant his own Lord or master, or consider him greater? The implication was that Jesus, the Son of Man, and descendant of David, was greater than David. Peter, in fact, repeated this citation of Psalm 110 in his preaching in the Acts of the Apostles, chapter 2:34-35, also. Only Mark had the comment that the large crowd was listening to Jesus with delight or gladly (Καὶ ὁ πολὺς ὄχλος ἤκουεν αὐτοῦ ἡδέως).
In the Temple,
‘How can the Scribes say
That the Messiah Christ is
The son of David?’”
Καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἔλεγεν διδάσκων ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ Πῶς λέγουσιν οἱ γραμματεῖς ὅτι ὁ Χριστὸς υἱὸς Δαυείδ ἐστιν;
There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 22:41-42, but there Jesus was sparing with the Pharisees and not in the Temple, as here in Mark. Luke, chapter 20:41, is almost word for word like Mark. Mark said while Jesus was teaching in the Temple (διδάσκων ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ), he questioned them saying (Καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἔλεγεν) how can the Scribes say (Πῶς λέγουσιν οἱ γραμματεῖς) that the Messiah Christ is the son of David (ὅτι ὁ Χριστὸς υἱὸς Δαυείδ ἐστιν)? This was a complex question that Jesus posed to them. He seemed to indicate that the Christ Messiah was the son of David.
“Jesus said to them.
‘How is it then
Inspired by the Spirit,
Calls him Lord?
‘The Lord said
To my Lord.
‘Sit at my right hand,
Until I put your enemies
Under your feet.’
If David thus calls him Lord,
How can he be his son?’”
λέγει αὐτοῖς Πῶς οὖν Δαυεὶδ ἐν Πνεύματι καλεῖ αὐτὸν Κύριον λέγω
Εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου ὑποκάτω τῶν ποδῶν σου;
εἰ οὖν Δαυεὶδ καλεῖ αὐτὸν Κύριον, πῶς υἱὸς αὐτοῦ ἐστιν;
There is something similar in Mark, chapter 12:35-37, and Luke, chapter 20:41-44, almost word for word. Jesus said to these Pharisees (λέγει αὐτοῖς). What did David mean when, inspired by the Spirit, he called the future Messiah, a son of David, “Lord” (Πῶς οὖν Δαυεὶδ ἐν Πνεύματι καλεῖ αὐτὸν Κύριον λέγω). Jesus then cited Psalm 110:1, where David said that the Lord said to his Lord to sit at his right hand (Εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου). He should sit there until he put all his enemies under his feet (ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου ὑποκάτω τῶν ποδῶν σου). Jesus then posed the big question. How can David call the Messiah Lord (εἰ οὖν Δαυεὶδ καλεῖ αὐτὸν Κύριον) if he is the son of David (πῶς υἱὸς αὐτοῦ ἐστιν)? This is a trick question. Why would David call his future son or descendant his own Lord, master, or greater than him? The response was that Jesus, the Son of Man, and descendant of David, was greater than David. Peter repeated this citation of Psalm 110 in his preaching in the Acts of the Apostles, chapter 2:34-35, also.