“It is easier
To pass away,
Than for one stroke
Of a letter
Of the law
To be dropped.”
εὐκοπώτερον δέ ἐστιν τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν γῆν παρελθεῖν ἢ τοῦ νόμου μίαν κεραίαν πεσεῖν.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that it was easier (εὐκοπώτερον δέ ἐστιν) for heaven (τὸν οὐρανὸν) and earth (καὶ τὴν γῆν) to pass away (παρελθεῖν), than for one stroke of a letter of the law to be dropped (ἢ τοῦ νόμου μίαν κεραίαν πεσεῖν). Nothing in the Law or the Torah could be changed or dropped, plain and simple. This saying is similar to Mark, chapter 13:31, and Matthew, chapter 5:18, with a few exceptions. Matthew has this as a great Jesus solemn pronouncement for his disciples (ἀμὴν γὰρ λέγω ὑμῖν). The next phrase is the same in Luke and Mark. Heaven and earth would not pass away (ἕως ἂν παρέλθῃ ὁ οὐρανὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ) until the law was fully accomplished (ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου, ἕως ἂν πάντα γένηται). Matthew, like Luke here, is even more specific with a detailed remark about the fact that not even an iota of the Law or not one stroke of a letter would go away (ἰῶτα ἓν ἢ μία κεραία οὐ μὴ παρέλθῃ ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου), before the Law was fully accomplished. Iota was the Greek word for the Hebrew yod, the smallest letter in the Hebrew alphabet. Mark indicated that it was the words of Jesus, and not the Law, that would not change. Paul, in his epistle to the Romans, chapter 3:31, would further expand on this idea of upholding the law. In Matthew, chapter 24:35, and in Luke, chapter 21:33, Jesus said that heaven and earth would pass away (ὁ οὐρανὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ παρελεύσονται), but his words would not pass away (οἱ δὲ λόγοι μου οὐ μὴ παρελεύσονται). This was a simple statement about the enduring quality of the words of Jesus. Here, however, it is the words of the law that would not pass away, not the words of Jesus. Which is more important for you, the law or the words of Jesus?
Shall be filled.
Shall be made low.
Shall be made low.
The crooked ways
Will be made straight.
The rough ways
Will be made smooth.”
πᾶσα φάραγξ πληρωθήσεται καὶ πᾶν ὄρος καὶ βουνὸς ταπεινωθήσεται, καὶ ἔσται τὰ σκολιὰ εἰς εὐθείας καὶ αἱ τραχεῖαι εἰς ὁδοὺς λείας·
Only Luke has this continuation of the prophecy from Deutero-Isaiah. As a further description on how to prepare the way for the Lord, Luke quoted Isaiah, chapter 40:4-5. Every valley will be filled (πᾶσα φάραγξ πληρωθήσεται). Every mountain and hill will be made low (καὶ πᾶν ὄρος καὶ βουνὸς ταπεινωθήσεται). The crooked ways will be made straight (καὶ ἔσται τὰ σκολιὰ εἰς εὐθείας). The rough ways will be made smooth (καὶ αἱ τραχεῖαι εἰς ὁδοὺς λείας). This would be a time of upheaval. The valleys would rise as the mountains and hills would fall. Also, the uneven and rough places would become level and plain so that all the people would then see the glory of God revealed.
“A voice cries out.
‘In the wilderness,
Prepare the way of Yahweh!
Make straight in the desert
A highway for our God.
Every valley shall be lifted up.
Every mountain shall be made low.
Every hill shall be made low.
The uneven ground shall become level.
The rough places shall become a plain.
The glory of Yahweh shall be revealed.
All the people shall see it together.
The mouth of Yahweh has spoken.’”
Here we have the famous phrase that was used by the Christian writers of the New Testament to speak about John the Baptist. The Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke both use these phrases from the Greek Septuagint when citing them from Isaiah. Apparently this new path is a way out of the Exile, just as there was the path of the Exodus. In this wilderness or desert, they were to make a straight path, like a highway for God or the Holy Way that was mentioned earlier in chapter 35, to prepare a path for Yahweh. This would also be a time of upheaval. The valleys would rise as the mountains and hills would fall. Also the uneven and rough places would become level and plain. All the people would then see the glory of God revealed. In case there was any doubt, Second Isaiah said that this was spoken by the mouth of Yahweh.
“Now a part of the king’s army was spread out on the high hills. Some troops were on the plain. They advanced steadily and in good order. All heard the noise made by their multitude. All heard the marching of the multitude and the clanking of their arms. Everyone trembled for the army was very large and strong. But Judas and his army advanced to the battle. Six hundred of the king’s army fell. Eleazar, called Avaran, saw that one of the beasts was equipped with royal armor. It was taller than all the others. He supposed that the king was on it. So he gave his life to save his people and win for himself an everlasting name. He courageously ran into the midst of the phalanx to reach it. He killed men right and left. They parted before him on both sides. He got under the elephant. He stabbed it from beneath and killed it. However, it fell to the ground upon him and he died. When the Jews saw the royal might and the fierce attack of the forces, they turned away in flight.”
The king’s army was in the hills and on the plains. They marched in a steady good order. They made a great noise by marching with their clanking arms. Everyone was afraid of this large and strong army. However, Judas and his men attacked the king’s men and killed 600 of them. Then Eleazar, the brothr of Judas, decided to attack the elephant who he thought was carrying the king because of the royal armor. He set out to kill people as they got out of his way. He went under the elephant and then stabbed it. However, the elephant fell on him as it died and crushed him to death. Now when the Jews saw this and the fierce attack of the king’s men, they fled.
“When the foreigners looked up, they saw them coming against them. They went out from their camp to battle. Then the men with Judas blew their trumpets. They engaged in the battle. The gentiles were crushed. They fled into the plain. All those in the rear fell by the sword. They pursued them to Gazara, and to the plains of Idumea, as well as to Azotus and Jamnia. Three thousand of them fell.”
When Judas and his men attacked, the foreign gentiles saw them coming as they went out to do battle. Then Judas and his men sounded the trumpet. This trumpet blowing was a sign of encouragement that seemed to have worked. They crushed the gentiles. Somehow they had enough swords to kill 3,000 of the 6,000 soldiers against them. They pursued them in four different directions. Gazara was 5 miles northwest of Emmaus. Idumea was to the south, while Azotus was in the west and Jamnia was southwest.
“Then General Holofernes ordered his slaves, who waited on him in his tent, to seize Achior. He wanted them to take him to Bethulia. There they would hand Achior over to the men of Israel. Thus the slaves took him. They led him out of the camp into the plain. From the plain, they went up into the hill country. They came to the springs below Bethulia. When the men of the town saw them, they seized their weapons. They ran out of the town to the top of the hill. All the slingers kept them from coming up by throwing stones at them. The slaves of Holofernes took shelter below the hill. They then bound Achior. They left him lying at the foot of the hill. Finally, they returned to their master.”
General Holofernes ordered his slaves to take Achior to Bethulia. Unfortunately we are unable to pinpoint where Bethulia might be since it is only mentioned in this book. It must have been fairly close to Dothan or near current day Jenin. Some have seen this as a veiled reference to Jerusalem. They left Achior at the bottom of the mountain, because the people of Bethulia came out with weapons when they saw the troops of General Holofernes coming towards them. They started slinging stones at them. The men of Holofernes then left Achior at the foot of the hill, after binding him up. They then returned to Holofernes.