With a kiss
To all of you
Who are in Christ.”
ἀσπάσασθε ἀλλήλους ἐν φιλήματι ἀγάπης. Εἰρήνη ὑμῖν πᾶσιν τοῖς ἐν Χριστῷ.
This author said, “Greet (ἀσπάσασθε) one another (ἀλλήλους) with a kiss (ἐν φιλήματι) of love (ἀγάπης). Peace (Εἰρήνη) to all of you (ὑμῖν πᾶσιν) who are in Christ (τοῖς ἐν Χριστῷ).” This author concluded this letter by asking the Christian communities in Asia Minor to greet each other with a holy kiss of love. He left them, as Paul often did, with the peace of Christ in their lives. Do you have peace in your life?
For those who make peace.”
καρπὸς δὲ δικαιοσύνης ἐν εἰρήνῃ σπείρεται τοῖς ποιοῦσιν εἰρήνην.
James said, “A harvest (καρπὸς) of righteousness (δὲ δικαιοσύνης) is sown (σπείρεται) in peace (ἐν εἰρήνῃ) for those who make (τοῖς ποιοῦσιν) peace (εἰρήνην).” James explained that the fruit or the harvest of righteousness comes from sowing or living in peace. If you make peace in your life, you will have the peace of righteousness. Thus, peaceful living brings about righteousness that in turn will bring eternal peace. Peace and righteousness with divine wisdom should be the goal of all Jewish Christians. Do you have peace and righteousness in your life?
To the whole brotherly community!
Love with faith,
And the Lord
Εἰρήνη τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς καὶ ἀγάπη μετὰ πίστεως ἀπὸ Θεοῦ Πατρὸς καὶ Κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ.
Paul said, “Peace (Εἰρήνη) be to the whole brotherly community (τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς)! Love (καὶ ἀγάπη) with faith (μετὰ πίστεως), from God (ἀπὸ Θεοῦ) the Father (Πατρὸς), and the Lord (καὶ Κυρίου) Jesus Christ (Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ).” Paul then gave his final blessing. He wanted them to live in peace in their loving brotherly community in Ephesus. He was sending them love with faith from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. Thus, Paul left them with the three main themes of peace, love, and faith from God and Jesus Christ. Is peace, love, and faith part of your life?
Had only recognized
On this day,
That make for peace!
They are hidden
From your eyes.’”
λέγων ὅτι Εἰ ἔγνως ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ταύτῃ καὶ σὺ τὰ πρὸς εἰρήνην· νῦν δὲ ἐκρύβη ἀπὸ ὀφθαλμῶν σου
Luke uniquely indicated what Jesus said (λέγων) to the people of Jerusalem. If only they had recognized or known (ὅτι Εἰ ἔγνως) on this day (ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ταύτῃ), today, the things that make peace (καὶ σὺ τὰ πρὸς εἰρήνην)! However, all that was now hidden (νῦν δὲ ἐκρύβη) from their eyes (ἀπὸ ὀφθαλμῶν σου). The very name of Jerusalem suggested peace. Now, here was the prince of peace, the messianic peace maker that was mentioned in Isaiah, chapter 11. He had come to Jerusalem in the person of Jesus. However, the people of Jerusalem could not see it, because it was hidden from them. Why it was hidden was not clear. The ancient Israelite prophets had often condemned Jerusalem for its unfaithfulness. Jesus was now there, but they did not recognize him, since only a few did. Would you have recognized Jesus?
“This salt is fit
For the soil,
Nor for the manure pile.
Throw it away!
οὔτε εἰς γῆν οὔτε εἰς κοπρίαν εὔθετόν ἐστιν· ἔξω βάλλουσιν αὐτό. ὁ ἔχων ὦτα ἀκούειν ἀκουέτω
Luke indicated that Jesus said that this salt was fit (εὔθετόν ἐστιν) neither for the soil (οὔτε εἰς γῆν), nor for the manure pile (οὔτε εἰς κοπρίαν). It should be thrown away (ἔξω βάλλουσιν αὐτό). Let anyone with ears to hear (ὁ ἔχων ὦτα ἀκούειν), listen (ἀκουέτω)! This saying of Jesus can be found somewhat similar in Matthew, chapter 5:13, and Mark, chapter 9:50. Matthew indicated that Jesus said that tasteless salt was now useless, impotent, and not good for anything (εἰς οὐδὲν ἰσχύει ἔτι). The end result of this insipid salt was that it should either be thrown away (εἰ μὴ βληθὲν ἔξω) or have people trample it down (καταπατεῖσθαι ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων). Mark indicated that Jesus then turned to his followers. He told them that they should have salt within themselves (ἔχετε ἐν ἑαυτοῖς ἅλα), not exactly the salt of the earth, but close enough. They should be at peace with one another (καὶ εἰρηνεύετε ἐν ἀλλήλοις). There was no indication here about throwing salt away because it had become useless, as in Matthew and Luke. Salt would bring about brotherly peace or love. Only Luke had the admonition to listen to what Jesus was saying. How much salt do you use?
“When a strong man,
Guards his castle,
ὅταν ὁ ἰσχυρὸς καθωπλισμένος φυλάσσῃ τὴν ἑαυτοῦ αὐλήν, ἐν εἰρήνῃ ἐστὶν τὰ ὑπάρχοντα αὐτοῦ·
Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus said that when a strong man (ὅταν ὁ ἰσχυρὸς), fully armed (καθωπλισμένος), guarded his castle (φυλάσσῃ τὴν ἑαυτοῦ αὐλήν), his property or possessions would be safe and at peace (ἐν εἰρήνῃ ἐστὶν τὰ ὑπάρχοντα αὐτοῦ). Both Mark and Matthew have the attack on the house that is in the next verse, but without the setup of guarding the castle as here in Luke. How do you guard your house or castle?
“Jesus said to her.
Has made you well!
Go in peace!’”
ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῇ Θυγάτηρ, ἡ πίστις σου σέσωκέν σε· πορεύου εἰς εἰρήνην
Luke indicated that Jesus said to her (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῇ), calling her daughter (Θυγάτηρ), that her faith had saved her or made her well (ἡ πίστις σου σέσωκέν σε). Using the second person singular imperative, he told her that she was to go in peace (πορεύου εἰς εἰρήνην). This ending to the healing of this woman with the flowing blood was nearly the same in Matthew, chapter 9:22, and Mark, chapter 5:34. Mark had pretty much the same narrative as Luke. Like the other healings, Jesus said to this woman that her faith had healed, cured, or saved her. He called her “daughter (Θυγάτηρ).” He told her to go in peace. This woman was cured of her affliction or disease, as faith was a key ingredient in this healing, as in every healing. Matthew was slightly different. He said that Jesus realized that power had gone forth from him. Jesus then turned around and saw her. He realized what she was thinking. Like the other times, Jesus said that her faith had saved or cured her. He called her “daughter (θύγατερ).” He told her to have courage and take heart. With that, this woman was cured at that very hour, rather than at the initial touching of the garment, as in the other 2 synoptics. Faith was a key ingredient in all these healings. How strong is your faith?
To the woman.
Has saved you!
Go in peace!’”
εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς τὴν γυναῖκα Ἡ πίστις σου σέσωκέν σε· πορεύου εἰς εἰρήνην.
Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus said to this woman (εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς τὴν γυναῖκα) that her faith had saved her (Ἡ πίστις σου σέσωκέν σε). Thus, she could go or travel in peace (πορεύου εἰς εἰρήνην). Faith being a prerequisite for the forgiveness of sins was another common theme of Jesus and Luke. Does your faith in Jesus save you?
‘Glory to God
In the highest heaven!
Peace among those
Whom he favors!’”
Δόξα ἐν ὑψίστοις Θεῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς εἰρήνη ἐν ἀνθρώποις εὐδοκίας.
This is where the famous Latin song sung at Roman Catholic masses during the Liturgy of the Word “Gloria in excelsis Deo” comes from. Luke indicated that these angels were saying (καὶ λεγόντων) or singing “Glory to God in the highest (Δόξα ἐν ὑψίστοις Θεῷ)! On earth (καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς), peace be among the men (εἰρήνη ἐν ἀνθρώποις) whom he favors (εὐδοκίας), those of good will.”
“In those days,
A decree went out
From the Emperor
That all the world
Should be registered.”
Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐκείναις ἐξῆλθεν δόγμα παρὰ Καίσαρος Αὐγούστου ἀπογράφεσθαι πᾶσαν τὴν οἰκουμένην.
Luke tried to put these events within a historical perspective. He said that in those days (Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις), a decree or dogma went out (ἐξῆλθεν δόγμα) from the Emperor, Caesar Augustus (παρὰ Καίσαρος Αὐγούστου), that all the world should be registered (ἀπογράφεσθαι πᾶσαν τὴν οἰκουμένην). Could all the world be registered in a census? Luke referred to the Roman Emperor, Caesar Augustus, who ruled the Roman empire with his famous Pax Romana, or peace everywhere, from 27 BCE to 14 CE, precisely the time of these events. Augustus was born in 63 BCE so that he would have been 77 years old when he died. He was sometimes called god, son of god, savior, or father. As the adopted son of Julius Caesar, he defeated Mark Anthony and Cleopatra to gain sole control of the empire. He set up an intricate set of taxes for the empire, so that there was a consent source of income. Thus, the local tax collectors or publicans became rich, but disliked, official people in the empire. The month of August was named after him, just as July was named after Julius Caesar. However, there is no evidence of any call to register the whole world. However, this would not have been inconsistent with his taxing plans, since the main reason for any registration or census would be for tax purposes. Thus, this is possible, but unlikely.