Surrounded on every side (Lk 19:43-19:43)

“Indeed,

The days

Will come upon you,

When your enemies

Will set up ramparts

Around you.

They will hem you in

On every side.”

 

ὅτι ἥξουσιν ἡμέραι ἐπὶ σὲ καὶ παρεμβαλοῦσιν οἱ ἐχθροί σου χάρακά σοι καὶ περικυκλώσουσίν σε καὶ συνέξουσίν σε πάντοθεν,

 

Luke indicated that Jesus remarked that bad days were coming to Jerusalem (ὅτι ἥξουσιν ἡμέραι ἐπὶ σὲ).  Jesus said that it would come to them when their enemies would put up a barricade against them (καὶ παρεμβαλοῦσιν οἱ ἐχθροί σου χάρακά σοι).  They would surround them (καὶ περικυκλώσουσίν σε) so that they would be hemmed in on every side (καὶ συνέξουσίν σε πάντοθεν).  This is the only Greek biblical use of the word περικυκλώσουσίν that means to hem them in on every side, encircle, surround, or encompass.  Jesus was using the words and images of the ancient Israelite prophets against Jerusalem.  Isaiah, chapter 29:1-3, called Jerusalem Ariel, a symbolic name for Jerusalem and its altar.  Isaiah, warned Jerusalem about what was going to happen to it.  Yahweh was going to encamp against it and set up siege works against it.  They would be able to speak only from below the earth and the dust.  Their voices would be reduced to a whisper, like a ghost in the middle of this dust pile.  Jeremiah, chapter 6:6-8, warned Jerusalem that its enemies were going to cut down trees in order to make a ramp siege against Jerusalem, because this city needed to be punished.  There was nothing but oppression and wickedness within her.  Jerusalem was a place of violence and destruction with sickness and wounded people all around.  Yahweh was going to turn away in disgust against Jerusalem. Thus, it would become a desolate uninhabited land, if it did not heed his warning.  Ezekiel, chapter 4:1-3, also condemned Jerusalem with Ezekiel’s symbolic action.  A voice told Ezekiel to be an expert model Lego builder of the siege of Jerusalem.  Ezekiel, the son of man, was to take a brick and portray the city of Jerusalem.  He was to put the siege works with a siege wall against this city.  He was to put a ramp and camps against this city with battering rams all around it.  Then he was to take an iron plate and make an iron wall between himself and the city, looking at it.  Thus, there was a state of siege, a sign for the house of Israel.  Ezekiel was part of the exiles from 598 BCE before the taking of Jerusalem and the second captivity in 587 BCE.  Of course, here this was allusion to the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE by the Roman soldiers putting down a revolution in Judea.  Luke would have known about this at the time of his writing.  Have you ever seen a city destroyed?

Advertisements

The assembly at Samaria (Am 3:9-3:11)

“Proclaim to the strongholds

In Ashdod!

Proclaim to the strongholds

In the land of Egypt!

Say!

‘Assemble yourselves

On Mount Samaria!

See what great tumults

Are within her!

See what oppressions

Are within her midst!’

‘They do not know

How to do right.’

Says Yahweh.

‘They store up violence

In their strongholds.

They store up robbery

In their strongholds.’

Therefore,

Thus says Yahweh God!

‘An adversary

Shall surround the land.

He shall strip you

Of your defense.

Your strongholds

Shall be plundered.’”

Amos wanted the enemies of Samaria, the Philistines and the Egyptians, to gather at Mount Samaria to see what was going on there. There was a great uproar and oppression there. Yahweh said that they did not know how to do what was right. They stored up violence and robbery in their fortresses. Thus, Yahweh said that an adversary was going to surround their land, strip them of their defenses, and plunder their fortresses.

The princes will exercise justice (Ezek 45:9-45:9)

“Thus says Yahweh God!

‘Enough!

O princes of Israel!

Put away violence!

Put away oppression!

Do what is just!

Do what is right!

Cease your evictions

Of my people.’

Says Yahweh God.”

Yahweh was going to tell the princes that he had enough of their violence and oppression. Now they were to do what was right and just. They should no longer evict the people of Yahweh, their God.

The deceitful neighbors (Jer 9:4-9:6)

“‘Beware of your neighbors!

Put no trust in any of your relatives!

All your relatives are liars.

Every neighbor goes around

Like a slanderer.

They all deceive their neighbors.

No one speaks the truth.

They have taught their tongues

To speak lies.

They commit iniquity.

They are too weary to repent.

Oppression upon oppression!

Deceit upon deceit!

They refuse to know me.’

Says Yahweh.”

Jeremiah has another oracle of Yahweh about watching out for your neighbors and their deceitfulness. Not only are they to be aware of their neighbors, but also their own relatives and next of kin. They were not to trust them because they were liars, hoping to take their place. Neighbors are going around slandering them. No one was speaking the truth because they all had taught their tongues to lie. When they did something wrong, they were too weary to repent. Thus there was oppression piled on oppression, deceit after deceit. They all refused to know Yahweh.

Warning against Jerusalem (Jer 6:6-6:8)

“Thus says Yahweh of hosts.

‘Cut down her trees!

Cast up a siege ramp

Against Jerusalem!

This is the city

That must be punished!

There is nothing but oppression

Within her!

As a well keeps its water fresh,

So she keeps fresh her wickedness.

Violence is heard within her.

Destruction is heard within her.

Sickness is ever before me.

Wounds are ever before me.

Take warning!

O Jerusalem!

Otherwise I shall turn from you

In disgust.

I will make you a desolation.

I will make you an uninhabited land.’”

Yahweh, via Jeremiah, warned Jerusalem. They were going to cut down trees in order to make a ramp siege against Jerusalem because this city needed to be punished. There was nothing but oppression and wickedness within her. Jerusalem was a place of violence and destruction with sickness and wounded people all around. Yahweh was going to turn away in disgust against Jerusalem. Thus it would become a desolate uninhabited land, if it did not heed his warning.

The new people of Jerusalem (Isa 54:13-54:14)

“All your children

Shall be taught

By Yahweh.

Great shall be the prosperity

Of your children.

In righteousness,

You shall be established.

You shall be far from oppression.

You shall not fear.

Terror shall not come near you.

If anyone stirs up strife,

It is not from me.

Whoever stirs up strife

With you

Shall fall

Because of you.”

Second Isaiah says the children at the new Jerusalem will be taught directly by Yahweh. They will have great prosperity. Righteousness shall prevail. There will be no oppression, fear, or terror because of the established righteousness of this city and its people. However, there is a caution. If anyone stirs up strife, it is their own fault. Yahweh will not stir up any arguments. If they are not righteous, they will have to take care of it themselves.

The righteous ones (Isa 33:15-33:16)

“If you walk righteously,

If you speak uprightly,

If you despise the gain of oppression,

If you wave away a bribe

Instead of accepting it,

If you stop your ears

From hearing of bloodshed,

If you shut your eyes

From looking on evil,

You will live on the heights.

Your refuge will be

The fortresses of rocks.

Your food will be supplied.

Your water will be assured.”

This is somewhat like Psalm 15 with its description about the righteous ones who can be admitted to the Temple. The righteous ones walk righteously, speak upright, and despise the gains from oppression. They do not accept bribes nor hear of bloodshed. They close their eyes to evil. These are the people who will live on the heights of Zion. They will not have to worry about refuge, food, or water, since Yahweh will take care of them.