Where the rich man
Was being tormented,
He looked up.
He saw Abraham
By his side.”
καὶ ἐν τῷ Ἅιδῃ ἐπάρας τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτοῦ, ὑπάρχων ἐν βασάνοις, ὁρᾷ Ἀβραὰμ ἀπὸ μακρόθεν καὶ Λάζαρον ἐν τοῖς κόλποις αὐτοῦ.
This parable story about the poor man Lazarus and an unnamed rich man is only found in Luke, not in the other gospels. Luke indicated that Jesus said that the rich man was living in torment (ὑπάρχων ἐν βασάνοις) in Hades (καὶ ἐν τῷ Ἅιδῃ), the Greek name for hell, a permanent place of damnation as opposed to the vague Hebrew afterlife Sheol, the place of the dead. This rich man looked up or lifted up his eyes (ἐπάρας τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτοῦ). He saw Abraham (ὁρᾷ Ἀβραὰμ), far away (ἀπὸ μακρόθεν), with Lazarus in his bosom (καὶ Λάζαρον ἐν τοῖς κόλποις αὐτοῦ). Both Abraham and Lazarus were together, but far away since there was a clear difference between where the rich man and Lazarus with Abraham were. Just as in life, there was a difference between the rich man and Lazarus, so too in death. Do you believe that there will be options in the afterlife?
Who were lovers
Heard all this.
They ridiculed Jesus.”
Ἤκουον δὲ ταῦτα πάντα οἱ Φαρισαῖοι φιλάργυροι ὑπάρχοντες, καὶ ἐξεμυκτήριζον αὐτόν.
Once again, this is a unique statement of Luke, not found in the other gospel stories. Luke indicated that the Pharisees (οἱ Φαρισαῖοι), who were lovers of money (φιλάργυροι ὑπάρχοντες), heard all this (Ἤκουον δὲ ταῦτα πάντα). They ridiculed Jesus (καὶ ἐξεμυκτήριζον αὐτόν). Obviously, Luke was very much opposed to wealth, as this was an insult to the Pharisees to call them money lovers. Luke was the only biblical writer who used the term ἐξεμυκτήριζον that means to hold up your nose in derision, deride, scoff at, or mock. Thus, there was some antipathy between Jesus and the Pharisees that shows up all the time. Are you a lover of money?
He said to Mary,
For the falling
He will be a sign
That will be opposed.”
καὶ εὐλόγησεν αὐτοὺς Συμεὼν καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς Μαριὰμ τὴν μητέρα αὐτοῦ Ἰδοὺ οὗτος κεῖται εἰς πτῶσιν καὶ ἀνάστασιν πολλῶν ἐν τῷ Ἰσραὴλ καὶ εἰς σημεῖον ἀντιλεγόμενον
Luke said that this holy and devout Simeon turned to Mary and her family. Simeon blessed them (καὶ εὐλόγησεν αὐτοὺς Συμεὼν), presumably Mary, Joseph, and Jesus. Was this a priestly blessing? There was no indication that Simeon was a priest, but only an old devout righteous man, but he could have been a old Levite priest also. Then he said to Mary (καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς Μαριὰμ), the mother of Jesus (τὴν μητέρα αὐτοῦ) that this child would be destined for the falling and rising of many in Israel (Ἰδοὺ οὗτος κεῖται εἰς πτῶσιν καὶ ἀνάστασιν πολλῶν ἐν τῷ Ἰσραὴλ). He would be a sign that would be a contraction, as some would oppose him (καὶ εἰς σημεῖον ἀντιλεγόμενον). Everything would not be smooth sailing for her and this child. However, this was not as bad as what Matthew, chapter 2:13-18, had Joseph suffer. There the intention of King Herod was to destroy all the young children in Bethlehem that led him to flee into Egypt. Luke had none of that here. Instead, Joseph and Mary are law abiding Jewish parents active in the Jerusalem Temple, where a holy man came and told them how wonderful Jesus was. There were no Magi here, just shepherds visiting the baby child. King Herod was not even in the picture here in Luke.
“This was the first registration.
It was taken
When Quirinius was
Governor of Syria.”
αὕτη ἀπογραφὴ πρώτη ἐγένετο ἡγεμονεύοντος τῆς Συρίας Κυρηνίου.
Luke noted that this first registration was taken (αὕτη ἀπογραφὴ πρώτη ἐγένετο) when Quirinius was governing Syria (ἡγεμονεύοντος τῆς Συρίας Κυρηνίου). Quirinius was the legate of Syria from 6 CE-12 CE. He was born 51 BCE and died at the age of 72 in 21 CE. He did take a census or registration for tax purposes in 6 CE when he took over. This led to the revolt of Judas the Galilean and the formation of the Jewish Zealots, who opposed Roman rule. They opposed this census for the purposes of taxation by Quirinius, the Governor of Syria. The one problem is that this census took place 10 years after Herod had died. However, the birth of Jesus and John was placed during the reign of Herod. Thus, there is a problem with this dating by Luke, who may have been confused about these historical details.
Polytheism is opposed to monotheism, since there is not one God, but many Gods. In other words, there is not one transcendent ultimate God, but a series of many Gods. Thus, many ancient religions, like the Greeks and Romans, had a variety of Gods for all occasions. The Israelites were continually fighting against the variety of Baal Gods in Canaan. Many ancient native religions also had a variety of Gods to answer their many questions.
Theism proclaims that there is a mysterious transcendent God out there. We need to know and understand this higher power. We can find a way to describe our transcendent God by using human terms. Most religions believe in some higher power. The place and how contact is made with this mysterious power is often different among theist believers. Theism is a positive response to the question of God, as opposed to the negative response of atheism.
The 19th century anti-evolution and anti-modern science attitude was basic to fundamentalism. Darwin’s evolutionary theory in The Origin of the Species (1859) became the symbol around which most of the fundamentalism revolved. Darwin held that everything was evolutionary. Evolution was opposed to the concept of immovable static truths, particularly the first structured creation story of Genesis. The height of the anti-evolution movement was reached in the 1925 Scopes Trial, although this still continues today with the question about teaching creationism versus evolution.