Sin and punishment (Lk 13:2-13:2)

“Jesus asked them.

‘Do you think

That these Galileans,

Suffered in this way

Because they were

Worse sinners

Than all the other Galileans?’”

 

καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Δοκεῖτε ὅτι οἱ Γαλιλαῖοι οὗτοι ἁμαρτωλοὶ παρὰ πάντας τοὺς Γαλιλαίους ἐγένοντο, ὅτι ταῦτα πεπόνθασιν; 

 

Next Luke uniquely indicated how Jesus used this contemporary event to make a point.  Jesus asked them (καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς) if they thought (Δοκεῖτε) that these Galileans (ὅτι οἱ Γαλιλαῖοι οὗτοι) suffered this way (ὅτι ταῦτα πεπόνθασιν) because they were worse sinners than all the other Galileans (ἁμαρτωλοὶ παρὰ πάντας τοὺς Γαλιλαίους ἐγένοντο)?  Jesus wanted to know if they thought that Galileans who got killed offering their sacrifice at the Temple were worse sinners than the other Galileans.  Is it worse to die in Church?  Does the type of death that you endure indicate what kind of sinner you were?

 

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Do not tell anyone (Lk 5:14-5:14)

“Jesus ordered

The cleansed leper

To tell no one.

He said.

Go!

Show yourself

To the priest!

Make an offering

For your cleansing,

As Moses commanded,

For a testimony

To the people.’”

 

καὶ αὐτὸς παρήγγειλεν αὐτῷ μηδενὶ εἰπεῖν, ἀλλὰ ἀπελθὼν δεῖξον σεαυτὸν τῷ ἱερεῖ, καὶ προσένεγκε περὶ τοῦ καθαρισμοῦ σου καθὼς προσέταξεν Μωϋσῆς, εἰς μαρτύριον αὐτοῖς

 

Luke said that Jesus ordered the leper (καὶ αὐτὸς παρήγγειλεν αὐτῷ) to tell no one (μηδενὶ εἰπεῖν).  Jesus told him to show himself to the priest (ἀλλὰ ἀπελθὼν δεῖξον σεαυτὸν τῷ ἱερεῖ).  He was to make an offering for this cleansing (καὶ προσένεγκε περὶ τοῦ καθαρισμοῦ σου), just as Moses had commanded (καθὼς προσέταξεν Μωϋσῆς), as a testimony or witness to the people (εἰς μαρτύριον αὐτοῖς).  This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 8:4, and Mark, chapter 1:43-44, so that Mark might be the source of this admonition saying.  Mark and Matthew said that Jesus sternly warned the cleansed leper not to say anything to anyone.  This is often referred to as the messianic secret because Jesus did not want anyone to know about his power.  Instead, the leper was to show himself to the priest, as recommended in Leviticus, chapter 14:2-9.  He should make the offering for his cleansing as outlined in Leviticus, since this is what Moses had commanded.  He wanted this cleansed leper to show himself as a witness or testimony to the priests and the people.

The parents of Jesus appear (Lk 2:27-2:27)

“Guided

By the Spirit,

Simeon came

Into the temple.

The parents

Brought in

Their child Jesus,

To do for him

What was customary

Under the law.”

 

καὶ ἦλθεν ἐν τῷ Πνεύματι εἰς τὸ ἱερόν· καὶ ἐν τῷ εἰσαγαγεῖν τοὺς γονεῖς τὸ παιδίον Ἰησοῦν τοῦ ποιῆσαι αὐτοὺς κατὰ τὸ εἰθισμένον τοῦ νόμου περὶ αὐτοῦ,

 

Luke said that Simeon, guided by the Holy Spirit (ἐν τῷ Πνεύματι), went into the Jerusalem Temple (καὶ ἦλθεν…εἰς τὸ ἱερόν).  Then the parents of the child Jesus brought him into the Temple (καὶ ἐν τῷ εἰσαγαγεῖν τοὺς γονεῖς τὸ παιδίον Ἰησοῦν τοῦ ποιῆσαι αὐτοὺς) for the customary actions under the Law (κατὰ τὸ εἰθισμένον τοῦ νόμου περὶ αὐτοῦ).  Unfortunately, there were no ordinary customs for the children, since the purification ritual was for the mother.  It was rare for a mother to offer up her son to God.  Normally, the 2 birds were sufficient as an offering for the first-born male child.  Nevertheless, Simeon was there in the Temple when Mary, Joseph, and the child Jesus came into the Jerusalem Temple.

Forget about your parents (Mk 7:11-7:12)

“But you say.

‘If anyone tells father

Or mother,

‘Whatever support

You might have had

From me

Is Corban.’

That is

An offering to God.

Then you no longer permit

Doing anything

For a father

Or a mother.”

 

ὑμεῖς δὲ λέγετε Ἐὰν εἴπῃ ἄνθρωπος τῷ πατρὶ ἢ τῇ μητρί Κορβᾶν, ὅ ἐστιν Δῶρον, ὃ ἐὰν ἐξ ἐμοῦ ὠφεληθῇς,

οὐκέτι ἀφίετε αὐτὸν οὐδὲν ποιῆσαι τῷ πατρὶ ἢ τῇ μητρί,

 

There is something similar to this in Matthew, chapter 15:5.  Mark indicated that Jesus said that the Pharisees said (ὑμεῖς δὲ λέγετε) that any person could tell his father or mother (Ἐὰν εἴπῃ ἄνθρωπος τῷ πατρὶ ἢ τῇ μητρί) that it is a “Corban (Κορβᾶν).”  This “Corban” was a Temple offering to God that their parents could not profit from it (Δῶρον ὃ ἐὰν ἐξ ἐμοῦ ὠφεληθῇς).  Then Jesus explained that this “Corban” would no longer permit them to do anything for their father or mother (οὐκέτι ἀφίετε αὐτὸν οὐδὲν ποιῆσαι τῷ πατρὶ ἢ τῇ μητρί).  Therefore, they would only offer gifts to God and not their parents.  Sometimes people did not give their promised temple gift or “Corban” until just before death, but still never give anything to their parents.

Do not tell anyone except the priest (Mk 1:43-1:44)

“Jesus

Sternly warned him.

He sent him away

At once.

He said to him.

‘See!

Say nothing

To anyone!

But go!

Show yourself

To the priest!

Offer

For your cleansing

What Moses commanded,

As a testimony to them.’”

 

καὶ ἐμβριμησάμενος αὐτῷ εὐθὺς ἐξέβαλεν αὐτόν,

καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ Ὅρα μηδενὶ μηδὲν εἴπῃς, ἀλλὰ ὕπαγε σεαυτὸν δεῖξον τῷ ἱερεῖ καὶ προσένεγκε περὶ τοῦ καθαρισμοῦ σου ἃ προσέταξεν Μωϋσῆς εἰς μαρτύριον αὐτοῖς.

 

Luke, chapter 5:14, and Matthew, chapter 8:4, are almost word for word like Mark, so that Mark might be the source of this admonition saying.  Mark said that Jesus sternly warned the cleansed leper (καὶ ἐμβριμησάμενος αὐτῷ) before the leper was sent him away immediately (εὐθὺς ἐξέβαλεν αὐτόν).  Jesus told the leper (καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ) not to say anything to anyone (Ὅρα μηδενὶ μηδὲν εἴπῃς).  This is often referred to as the messianic secret because Jesus did not want anyone to know about his power.  Instead, the leper was to show himself to the priest (ἀλλὰ ὕπαγε σεαυτὸν δεῖξον τῷ ἱερεῖ,), as recommended in Leviticus, chapter 14:2-9.  He should make the offering (καὶ προσένεγκε) for his cleansing (περὶ τοῦ καθαρισμοῦ σου) as outlined in Leviticus, since this is what Moses had commanded (ἃ προσέταξεν Μωϋσῆς) in the Torah.  He wanted this cleansed leper to show himself as a witness or testimony to the priests (εἰς μαρτύριον αὐτοῖς).

Israel as an ungrateful child (Hos 11:1-11:4)

“When Israel was a child,

I loved him.

I called my son

Out of Egypt.

The more I called them,

The more they went from me.

They kept sacrificing

To the Baals.

They kept offering incense

To idols.

Yet it was I

Who taught Ephraim

To walk.

I took them up

In my arms.

But they did not know

That I healed them.

I led them

With cords

Of human kindness.

I led them

With the bands of love.

I was to them

Like those who lift infants

To their cheeks.

I bent down to them.

I fed them.”

When Israel was a child, Yahweh loved him. He had called his son out of Egypt. However, the more that he called them, the more that they went from him. They kept sacrificing to the Baals, offering incense to these idols. Yahweh was the one who taught Ephraim how to walk. He took him up in his arms. They did not know that he had healed them. He led them around with cords of human kindness and bands of love. He lifted them up to his cheeks. He bent down to fed them. Now instead of Israel or Ephraim as an unfaithful lover as earlier in this work, Israel and Ephraim have become ungrateful children.

Yahweh remembers the failures in Judah and Jerusalem (Jer 44:21-44:23)

“As for the offerings

That you made

In the towns of Judah,

In the streets of Jerusalem,

Did not Yahweh remember them?

That is you with

Your ancestors,

Your kings,

Your officials,

The people of the land,

Did it not come into his mind?

Yahweh could no longer

Bear the sight

Of your evil doings,

The abominations

That you committed.

Therefore your land

Became a desolation,

A waste,

A curse,

Without inhabitants,

As it is to this day.

It is

Because you burned offerings,

Because you sinned

Against Yahweh.

You did not obey

The voice of Yahweh.

You did not

Walk in his law,

Walk in his statutes,

Walk in his decrees.

Thus this disaster

Has befallen you,

As is still evident today.”

Jeremiah justifies the punishment that they have today, based on their idolatrous sacrifices that they, their ancestors, their kings, their officials, and all the people had made earlier in Judah and Jerusalem. Did they think that Yahweh, their God, would forget this? Yahweh could no longer bear the sight of these evil abominations, so that he made their land desolate, a waste, and cursed, without inhabitants until the present time. They had sinned by offering these burnt sacrifices. They did not obey Yahweh. They would not follow his laws, statutes, or decrees. Thus this disaster has come upon them until the present day. Jeremiah thought that these refugees were too defiant against Yahweh.