Next Luke uniquely continued with this Jesus parable. Jesus said that when you are invited to someplace (ἀλλ’ ὅταν κληθῇς), you should go and sit down or recline at the lowest place (πορευθεὶς ἀνάπεσε εἰς τὸν ἔσχατον τόπον). Then when your host who had invited you comes and sees you (ἵνα ὅταν ἔλθῃ ὁ κεκληκώς σε) he might say to you (ἐρεῖ σοι), “Friend (Φίλε)! Move or come up higher (προσανάβηθι ἀνώτερον)!” This προσανάβηθι is another unique word of Luke. Then you will be honored or glorified (τότε ἔσται σοι δόξα) in the presence of all those (ἐνώπιον πάντων) sitting or reclining at the table with you (τῶν συνανακειμένων σοι). In other words, take the lower seat so that you would be honored when the host noticed who you were. That assumes that the host knows who you are, otherwise, why would he have invited you? Have you ever been invited some place where you hardly knew anyone?
Luke had Jesus continue with this unique dinner party with the Pharisees. Jesus noticed how the guests had chosen the places of honor (ἐπέχων πῶς τὰς πρωτοκλισίας ἐξελέγοντο). Thus, he told these invited guests a parable (Ἔλεγεν δὲ πρὸς τοὺς κεκλημένους παραβολήν). This is what he said (λέγων πρὸς αὐτούς). Apparently, the Pharisees often sought after the places of honor as indicated in the last dinner he had with the Pharisees in chapter 11:43. There, Jesus actually cursed the Pharisees, because these Pharisees loved to have the first seats or the seats of honor in the synagogues. There was something similar in Mark, chapter 12:39, and Matthew, chapter 23:6-7. Matthew indicated that Jesus said that these Pharisees and Scribes loved to have the chief places of honor at banquet feasts and the best or front seats in the assembled synagogues. Mark indicated that Jesus told them to beware of the Scribes, but not the Pharisees, because these Scribes walked around in long robes and loved the front seats in the synagogues. They loved to have the chief places of honor at banquet feasts They were the elite social butterflies. Are you a social butterfly who likes the front row?
Luke uniquely said that Jesus saw her (ἰδὼν δὲ αὐτὴν). He then called her over near to him (ὁ Ἰησοῦς προσεφώνησεν). He then said to her (καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῇ), calling her woman (Γύναι), that she would be set free from her ailment or sickness (ἀπολέλυσαι τῆς ἀσθενείας σου). Obviously, Jesus would have noticed this bent over lady, which is often common among older men and women because of osteoporosis or weakening of the backbone. He called her over to cure her of her infirmity. He was going to see her free from the evil spirit that had caused this problem. Have you ever seen a person recover from being bent over?
Luke said that this Pharisee was amazed to see (ὁ δὲ Φαρισαῖος ἰδὼν ἐθαύμασεν) that Jesus did not first wash (ὅτι οὐ πρῶτον ἐβαπτίσθη) before dinner (πρὸ τοῦ ἀρίστου). There is something similar to this in Mark, chapter 7:2-5 and Matthew, chapter 15:2. However, the complaint there was about the disciples of Jesus, not Jesus himself. Matthew said that these Pharisees wanted to know why the disciples of Jesus did not wash their hands before they ate bread. They said that this action was a violation against the tradition of the elders. Mark said that these Pharisees and Scribes had noticed that the disciples of Jesus were eating bread with defiled hands, because they did not wash their hands. These Pharisees and Scribes wanted to know why the disciples of Jesus did not live according to the tradition of the elders. Originally, this practice of washing hands before eating was what the Levites did in the Temple to practice ritual purity as indicated in Exodus, chapter 30:17-21. Yahweh had told Moses that there should be a bronze basin with a bronze stand for washing. Thus, Aaron and his sons should wash their hands and feet when they went into the meeting tent or the altar. The penalty for not washing your hands and feet was death under this perpetual ordinance. However, the Pharisaic oral tradition, or the tradition of the elders, had extended this practice to individual homes. Thus, they were violating the tradition of the elders. Wash your hands! Do you wash your hands before you eat?
Luke indicated that Jesus said (ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν) that someone touched him (Ἥψατό μού τις). He noticed that power had gone out from him (ἐγὼ γὰρ ἔγνων δύναμιν ἐξεληλυθυῖαν ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ). This discussion of Jesus about his power and someone touching him can be found in Mark, chapter 5:30-32, but not in Matthew. Here, the discussion was with Peter, not the disciples. However, Mark said that his disciples said to him that there was such a large crowd pressing in on him. Why was he saying who touched him? How would they be able to tell who touched him? However, Jesus looked all around to see who had touched him. He was determined to know who it was that had received his power. Are you inquisitive?
Luke said that when Jesus saw their faith (καὶ ἰδὼν τὴν πίστιν αὐτῶν), he said to him (εἶπεν), calling him friend or man (Ἄνθρωπε), that his sins were forgiven (ἀφέωνταί σοι αἱ ἁμαρτίαι σου). This is almost word for word like Mark, chapter 2:5, and Matthew, chapter 9:2, so that Mark might be the source of this saying. Mark said that Jesus noticed their faith. He then said to the paralytic that his sins were forgiven or taken away. The idea that sickness and sin had a common connection was prevalent. In fact, Jesus called this paralyzed man son in Mark and Matthew, but Luke called him man or friend, not son. Matthew said that Jesus, noticing their faith, then told the paralytic to have courage, because his sins were forgiven. Faith and healing seemed to go hand in hand.
Luke said that at that moment or hour (καὶ αὐτῇ τῇ ὥρᾳ), when Mary, Joseph, and Jesus were there in the Temple, Anna, the prophetess daughter of Phanuel came to them (ἐπιστᾶσα). She began to praise God (ἀνθωμολογεῖτο τῷ Θεῷ), as was her custom. However, she also spoke about this child Jesus (καὶ ἐλάλει περὶ αὐτοῦ). He would be important for all those who were looking for or expecting the liberation or redemption of Jerusalem (πᾶσιν τοῖς προσδεχομένοις λύτρωσιν Ἰερουσαλήμ). This old prophet lady noticed Jesus in the same way that the old righteous man Simeon had. She came over to him and his parents. She said that Jesus would be important for anyone concerned about the future of Jerusalem. Notice that it was not Israel, but Jerusalem that would be saved, liberated, or redeemed.
There is something similar to this in Matthew, chapter 15:2, and Luke chapter 11:38. Mark said that these Pharisees and Scribes had seen or noticed that the disciples of Jesus (καὶ ἰδόντες τινὰς τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ) were eating bread (ἐσθίουσιν τοὺς ἄρτους) with defiled hands (ὅτι κοιναῖς χερσίν) because they did not wash their hands. Thus, they ate with unwashed hands (τοῦτ’ ἔστιν ἀνίπτοις). Wash you hands before you eat!
This is almost word for word the same as Luke, chapter 5:20, and Matthew, chapter 9:2, so that Mark might be the source of this saying. Mark said that Jesus noticed or saw them and their faith (καὶ ἰδὼν ὁ Ἰησοῦς τὴν πίστιν αὐτῶν), which is exactly the same wording as Matthew, chapter 9:2. He then said to the paralytic (λέγει τῷ παραλυτικῷ) that his sins were forgiven or taken away (ἀφίενταί σου αἱ ἁμαρτίαι). The idea that sickness and sin had a common connection was prevalent. In fact, Jesus called this paralyzed man son (Τέκνον), like Matthew, but Luke called him man or friend, not son. Faith and healing seemed to go hand in hand, but there was no mention of a healing here yet.
This section about Peter walking on the water is unique to Matthew, as he tended to emphasize the importance of Peter. Jesus told Peter to come to him (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν Ἐλθέ). Thus, Peter got out of the boat (καὶ καταβὰς ἀπὸ τοῦ πλοίου Πέτρος) and started walking on the water (περιεπάτησεν ἐπὶ τὰ ὕδατα). He came toward Jesus (καὶ ἦλθεν πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν), but he noticed a strong wind (βλέπων δὲ τὸν ἄνεμον), so that he became frightened (ἐφοβήθη). Thus, he began to sink (καὶ ἀρξάμενος καταποντίζεσθαι), as he cried out to Jesus, his Lord or master, to save him (ἔκραξεν λέγων Κύριε, σῶσόν με).