Unlawful on the Sabbath (Lk 6:2-6:2)

“But some of the Pharisees

Said.

‘Why are you doing

What is not lawful

To do on the Sabbath?’”

 

τινὲς δὲ τῶν Φαρισαίων εἶπαν Τί ποιεῖτε ὃ οὐκ ἔξεστιν τοῖς σάββασιν;

 

As per usual, the Pharisees pop up to complain and question the disciples of Jesus.  Luke said that some of the Pharisees said (τινὲς δὲ τῶν Φαρισαίων εἶπαν) that what the disciples of Jesus were doing was not lawful to do on the Sabbath (Τί ποιεῖτε ὃ οὐκ ἔξεστιν τοῖς σάββασιν).  They posed it as a question.  Matthew, chapter 12:2, and Mark, chapter 2:24, are similar to Luke, so that Mark may be the source of this incident.  Matthew said that Pharisees saw the disciples of Jesus plucking the grain on the Sabbath.  Deuteronomy, chapter 25:24-25, stated that it was okay to pluck the ears with your hand, but you could not put a sickle to your neighbor’s standing grain or carry it away in a container.  However, Exodus, chapter 34:21, explicitly said that you could not harvest grain on the Sabbath, but did not mention any hand picking.  Thus, the Pharisees said to Jesus that his disciples were doing unlawful things on the Sabbath by plucking the grain   Notice that Jesus was not doing this, only his disciples were.

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Not lawful on the Sabbath (Mk 2:24-2:24)

“The Pharisees

Said to Jesus.

‘Look!

Why are they doing

What is not lawful

On the Sabbath?’”

 

καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι ἔλεγον αὐτῷ Ἴδε τί ποιοῦσιν τοῖς σάββασιν ὃ οὐκ ἔξεστιν;

 

Matthew, chapter 12:2, and Luke, chapter 6:2, are similar to Mark, who may be the source of this incident.  The Pharisees reacted to the disciples of Jesus plucking grain on the Sabbath.  Deuteronomy, chapter 25:24-25, stated that it was okay to pluck the ears with your hand, but you could not put a sickle to your neighbor’s standing grain or carry it away in a container.  However, Exodus, chapter 34:21, explicitly said that you could not harvest grain on the Sabbath, but did not mention any hand picking.  Thus, the Pharisees said to Jesus (καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι ἔλεγον αὐτῷ) that his disciples were doing unlawful things on the Sabbath by plucking the grain (Ἴδε τί ποιοῦσιν τοῖς σάββασιν ὃ οὐκ ἔξεστιν).

The Pharisees react (Mt 12:2-12:2)

“When the Pharisees saw it,

They said to Jesus.

‘Look!

Your disciples are doing

What is not lawful to do

On the sabbath!’”

 

οἱ δὲ Φαρισαῖοι ἰδόντες εἶπαν αὐτῷ Ἰδοὺ οἱ μαθηταί σου ποιοῦσιν ὃ οὐκ ἔξεστιν ποιεῖν ἐν σαββάτῳ.

 

Matthew has the Pharisees react to the disciples of Jesus plucking and eating grain on the Sabbath.  This is similar to Mark, chapter 2:24, at the beginning of Jesus’ ministry.  It is also the same as Luke, chapter 6:2.  Deuteronomy, chapter 25:24-25 stated that it was okay to pluck the ears with your hand, but you could not put a sickle to your neighbor’s standing grain or carry it away in a container.  However, Exodus, chapter 34:21, explicitly said that you could not harvest grain on the Sabbath but did not mention hand picking.  Thus, the Pharisees saw what had happened (οἱ δὲ Φαρισαῖοι ἰδόντες).  They said to Jesus (εἶπαν αὐτῷ) that his disciples were doing unlawful things on the Sabbath by plucking and eating the grain (Ἰδοὺ οἱ μαθηταί σου ποιοῦσιν ὃ οὐκ ἔξεστιν ποιεῖν ἐν σαββάτῳ).