“Woe to you!
Like unmarked graves.
Without realizing it.”
οὐαὶ ὑμῖν, ὅτι ἐστὲ ὡς τὰ μνημεῖα τὰ ἄδηλα, καὶ οἱ ἄνθρωποι οἱ περιπατοῦντες ἐπάνω οὐκ οἴδασιν.
Luke indicated that Jesus continued to pick on his dinner guests, the Pharisees. Jesus cursed these Pharisees without naming them. He said woe to them (οὐαὶ ὑμῖν) because they were like unmarked graves (ὅτι ἐστὲ ὡς τὰ μνημεῖα τὰ ἄδηλα) that people or men would walk over without realizing it (καὶ οἱ ἄνθρωποι οἱ περιπατοῦντες ἐπάνω οὐκ οἴδασιν). There was something similar in Matthew, chapter 23:27, where Jesus continued to curse the Pharisees and the Scribes. There was no doubt that Jesus was cursing the Scribes and the Pharisees because of their false hearts. They were like whitewashed tombs, that looked outwardly beautiful. However, the inside of these unmarked tombs was full of the bones of dead people and other kinds of filth or impure things. Thus, the Pharisees appear to look righteous on the outside to others. However, on the inside, in their hearts, they were full of hypocrisy, iniquity, and lawlessness. Matthew went into more detail than Luke did here, sitting with them at dinner. Have you ever complained directly to people at a dinner party?
When Jesus was
In one of the cities,
There was a man
Covered with leprosy.
When he saw Jesus,
With his face
To the ground.
He begged Jesus.
If you choose,
You can make me clean.’”
Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ εἶναι αὐτὸν ἐν μιᾷ τῶν πόλεων καὶ ἰδοὺ ἀνὴρ πλήρης λέπρας· ἰδὼν δὲ τὸν Ἰησοῦν, πεσὼν ἐπὶ πρόσωπον ἐδεήθη αὐτοῦ λέγων Κύριε, ἐὰν θέλῃς, δύνασαί με καθαρίσαι.
Luke said that Jesus was in one of the cities (Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ εἶναι αὐτὸν ἐν μιᾷ τῶν πόλεων), but without naming it. There was a man there fully covered with leprosy (καὶ ἰδοὺ ἀνὴρ πλήρης λέπρας). When he saw Jesus (ἰδὼν δὲ τὸν Ἰησοῦν), he bowed with his face to the ground (πεσὼν ἐπὶ πρόσωπον ἐδεήθη αὐτοῦ). He implored Jesus, calling him Lord (λέγων Κύριε). He said that if Jesus would choose (ἐὰν θέλῃς) to help him, he had the power to make him clean (δύνασαί με καθαρίσαι). This was similar Matthew, chapter 8:2, and Mark, chapter 1:40. However, here the man was fully covered with leprosy, but the request was the same. Mark, like Matthew said that a leper was begging Jesus, as he knelt before him. Then he said that if Jesus wanted to, he could make him clean. This leper was asking Jesus to make him clean, so that he could join normal Jewish society again. He knew that Jesus had the power to do this, since many prophets had cured lepers. Leprosy was some kind of skin disease that was usually found among poor people. Today, there are about 2,000,000 people with leprosy or Hansen’s disease, mostly in India, Indonesia, and Brazil. The Greek word “λέπρας” used here is a broader definition of leprosy than just Hansen’s disease. Leprosy was a Jewish religious problem also. What to do about it was clearly defined in Leviticus, chapters 13-14. Leprosy in the wide sense was considered unclean and had religious connotations, since only a priest could declare a person clean, with a distinct ritual for cleansing the leper. As a leper, they were considered unclean and not fit to live in normal communal life.
“After eight days
It was time
He was called
This was the name
Given to him
By the angel
Before he was conceived
In the womb.”
Καὶ ὅτε ἐπλήσθησαν ἡμέραι ὀκτὼ τοῦ περιτεμεῖν αὐτόν, καὶ ἐκλήθη τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Ἰησοῦς, τὸ κληθὲν ὑπὸ τοῦ ἀγγέλου πρὸ τοῦ συλλημφθῆναι αὐτὸν ἐν τῇ κοιλίᾳ.
Just as Luke had the circumcision and naming of John, so too he has the circumcision and naming of Jesus, his cousin. Like John, it takes place on the 8th day after the birth in chapter 1:59. So too, just like John, chapter 1:63, Jesus got his name at his circumcision. Luke said that after eight days had been completed (Καὶ ὅτε ἐπλήσθησαν ἡμέραι ὀκτὼ), it was time to circumcise the child (τοῦ περιτεμεῖν αὐτόν). He was called Jesus (καὶ ἐκλήθη τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Ἰησοῦς), the name given to him by the angel Gabriel (τὸ κληθὲν ὑπὸ τοῦ ἀγγέλου) before Mary conceived him in the womb (πρὸ τοῦ συλλημφθῆναι αὐτὸν ἐν τῇ κοιλίᾳ) in chapter 1:31. Luke continued these parallel stories of John and Jesus. Both families clearly followed all the Jewish laws and customs about circumcision and naming a child, but John and Jesus were nevertheless special children.
Then there was
The son of Alphaeus,
καὶ Ἀνδρέαν καὶ Φίλιππον καὶ Βαρθολομαῖον καὶ Μαθθαῖον καὶ Θωμᾶν καὶ Ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ Ἁλφαίου καὶ Θαδδαῖον καὶ Σίμωνα τὸν Καναναῖον
This section about naming the 12 apostles is similar to Matthew, chapter 10:3-4, and Luke, chapter 6:14-16. This list can also be compared to the list in the Acts of the Apostles, chapter 1:13. Except for Matthew and Andrew, the other 6 apostles are not mentioned by name elsewhere in the gospels. Andrew (καὶ Ἀνδρέαν), the brother of Simon, is first here, but without being called his brother. Then there was Philip (Φίλιππον), Bartholomew (καὶ Βαρθολομαῖον), Matthew (καὶ Μαθθαῖον), not called Levi, Thomas (καὶ Θωμᾶν), James, the son of Alphaeus (Ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ Ἁλφαίου), Thaddaeus (καὶ Θαδδαῖον), Simon the Cananaean (καὶ Σίμωνα τὸν Καναναῖον). Obviously, this Simon may have not been Jewish since he is called a Cananaean. Sometimes, this may have been a reference to the Zealots. In Mark 2:14, Levi or Matthew was called the son of Alphaeus as James is here. However, Thaddaeus was only listed by Matthew and Mark, while Luke and the Acts listed him as Jude or Judas, the son of James, not Thaddaeus. Are these two-different people or just two different names? Is this Jude Thaddeus like Simon Peter and Levi Matthew? Did he have a Jewish and a Greek name?
“The circumference of the city
Shall be eighteen thousand cubits.
The name of the city
From that time on,
Yahweh is there.”
Ezekiel ended his work by naming this new city, ‘Yahweh is there.’ This city was 18,000 cubits around. So, Ezekiel ended the way he began, with a vision that had a lot of details in it.
“But the idol made with hands is accursed.
So too the one who made it. Having made it,
The perishable thing was named a god.
Equally hateful to God
Are the ungodly man
With their ungodliness.
What was done
Will be punished together
With the one who did it.
Therefore there will be a visitation
Also upon the heathen idols.
Though part of what God created,
They became an abomination.
They became snares for human souls.
They became a trap to the feet of the foolish.”
Now here is a stinging rebuke of idols and their makers. Both the ungodly idol and the ungodly ones (ὁ ἀσεβῶν) who made it were accursed by God. They were making, calling, and naming these idols gods (θεὸς ὠνομάσθη). They and their idols both would be punished together. Although they are a good part of God’s creation (ἐν κτίσματι Θεοῦ), these idols (εἰδώλοις) have become an abomination or a scandal since they set snares and traps for foolish human souls (σκάνδαλα ψυχαῖς ἀνθρώπων).