Adam (Lk 3:38-3:38)

“The son of Enos,

The son of Seth,

The son of Adam,

The son of God.”

 

τοῦ Ἐνὼς τοῦ Σὴθ τοῦ Ἀδὰμ τοῦ Θεοῦ.

 

These names are listed in 1 Chronicles 1:2-1:3, and Genesis, chapter 5:1-8.  Luke concluded his genealogy with Adam, whom he called the son of God.  This terminology was not part of the Jewish tradition.  Of course, this term was applied to Jesus, the Son of God.  Luke said that Cainan was the son of Enos (τοῦ Ἐνὼς), the son of Seth (τοῦ Σὴθ), the son of Adam (τοῦ Ἀδὰμ), the son of God (τοῦ Θεοῦ).  The grouping has the so-called first man Adam, with his son, and grandson.  His son, besides Cain and Abel who are not even mentioned here, was Seth who lived to be 912 years old.  Seth’s son was Enosh who lived to be 905 years old.  Obviously, there were other brothers and sisters, but they are not mentioned.  This genealogy repeats the theme of Genesis, chapter 1.  God created humans in the image of God, male and female.  When Adam had lived 130 years, he became the father of a son in his likeness, according to his image.  He named this son Seth.  Adam had other sons and daughters.  Thus, all the days that Adam lived were 930 years.  The offspring of Seth, and not Cain, were to lead to Noah.  Most of these patriarchs began having children in old age, but they all had other sons and daughters.  Seth became the father of Enosh.  Enosh was the son of Seth, but also the father of Kenan or Cainan.  Thus, Luke completed his genealogy by going from Jesus to Adam, while Matthew went from Abraham to Jesus.  These 77 names of Luke represented a lucky completion or fullness of time.  Jesus would not only be a Jewish leader of the tribe of Abraham, but a worldwide universal leader.

The ancient pre-historic patriarchs (Lk 3:37-3:37)

“The son of Methuselah,

The son of Enoch,

The son of Jared,

The son of Mahalaleel,

The son of Cainan.”

 

τοῦ Μαθουσαλὰ τοῦ Ἐνὼχ τοῦ Ἰάρετ τοῦ Μαλελεὴλ τοῦ Καϊνὰμ

 

These names are listed in 1 Chronicles 1:2-1:3, and Genesis, chapter 5.  This group from Adam to Noah is sometimes referred to as the patriarchs before the flood, or what some might call pre-historic times, since there is very little evidence of their actual existence.  Luke said Lamech was the son of Methuselah (τοῦ Μαθουσαλὰ), the son of Enoch (τοῦ Ἐνὼχ), the son of Jared (τοῦ Ἰάρετ), the son of Mahalaleel (τοῦ Μαλελεὴλ), the son of Cainan (τοῦ Καϊνὰμ).  Methuselah was the father of Lamech.  He supposedly lived to the age of 969, longer than Adam.  Thus, it became a saying that an old man was as “old as Methuselah.”  His father was Enoch, who lived to be only 365 years old, a big drop off in age here.  However, Enoch walked with God, so that there was this strange remark that God took him, not that he died.  He was considered the seventh generation, the lucky number.  In fact, there is a Book of Enoch, from around 200 BCE, that some considered canonical.  Jared was the father of Enoch.  Mahalalel was the father of Jared.  Kenan or Cainan was the father of Mahalalel.

The old guys (Lk 3:35-3:35)

“The son of Serug,

The son of Reu,

The son of Peleg,

The son of Eber,

The son of Shelah.”

 

τοῦ Σεροὺχ τοῦ Ῥαγαῦ τοῦ Φάλεκ τοῦ Ἔβερ τοῦ Σαλὰ

 

This section is based on Genesis, chapter 11:14-23, which has more details about these people.  Luke listed the names without indicating how they are connected, Nahor was the son of Serug (τοῦ Σεροὺχ), the son of Reu (τοῦ Ῥαγαῦ), the son of Peleg (τοῦ Φάλεκ), the son of Eber (τοῦ Ἔβερ), the son of Shelah (τοῦ Σαλὰ), just as he has done throughout this genealogy.  According to Genesis, Shelah, had a son, Eber, who had a son, Peleg.  There was no mention of his brother Joktan and his 13 Arab sons here, since Peleg seems more important.  Peleg had a son, Reu, who had a son, Serug, who in turn had a son, named Nahor, who was the grandfather of Abraham.  1 Chronicles, chapter 1:24-27 has the same genealogy.

Various names between David and the captivity (Lk 3:28-3:30)

“The son of Melchi,

The son of Addi,

The son of Cosam,

The son of Elmadam,

The son of Er,

The son of Joshua,

The son of Eliezer,

The son of Jorim,

The son of Matthat,

The son of Levi,

The son of Simeon,

The son of Judah,

The son of Joseph,

The son of Jonam,

The son of Eliakim.”

 

τοῦ Μελχεὶ τοῦ Ἀδδεὶ τοῦ Κωσὰμ τοῦ Ἐλμαδὰμ τοῦ Ἢρ

τοῦ Ἰησοῦ τοῦ Ἐλιέζερ τοῦ Ἰωρεὶμ τοῦ Μαθθὰτ τοῦ Λευεὶ

τοῦ Συμεὼν τοῦ Ἰούδα τοῦ Ἰωσὴφ τοῦ Ἰωνὰμ τοῦ Ἐλιακεὶμ

 

None of these 15 names match up with any on the list in Matthew, chapter 1:8.  Some of these names like Joshua, Levi, Simeon, Judah, and Joseph, could be found in the Torah, but from a more ancient time frame.  This list was between the time of David and the Babylonian captivity.  Luke listed them as the son of Melchi (τοῦ Μελχεὶ), the son of Addi (τοῦ Ἀδδεὶ), the son of Cosam (τοῦ Κωσὰμ), the son of Elmadam (τοῦ Ἐλμαδὰμ), the son of Er (τοῦ Ἢρ), the son of Joshua (τοῦ Ἰησοῦ), the son of Eliezer (τοῦ Ἐλιέζερ), the son of Jorim (τοῦ Ἰωρεὶμ), the son of Matthat (τοῦ Μαθθὰτ), the son of Levi (τοῦ Λευεὶ), the  son of Simeon (τοῦ Συμεὼν), the son of Judah (τοῦ Ἰούδα), the son of Joseph (τοῦ Ἰωσὴφ), the son of Jonam (τοῦ Ἰωνὰμ), and the son of Eliakim (τοῦ Ἐλιακεὶμ).

The ancestors of Jesus (Lk 3:25-3:26)

“The son of Mattathias,

The son of Amos,

The son of Nahum,

The son of Esli,

The son of Naggai.

The son of Maath,

The son of Mattathias,

The son of Semein,

The son of Josech,

The son of Joda.”

 

τοῦ Ματταθίου τοῦ Ἀμὼς τοῦ Ναοὺμ τοῦ Ἐσλεὶ τοῦ Ναγγαὶ

τοῦ Μαὰθ τοῦ Ματταθίου τοῦ Σεμεεὶν τοῦ Ἰωσὴχ τοῦ Ἰωδὰ

 

Luke has a long list of people that are not in Matthew, chapter 1. They are the son of Mattathias (τοῦ Ματταθίου), the son of Amos (τοῦ Ἀμὼς), the son of Nahum (τοῦ Ναοὺμ), the son of Esli (τοῦ Ἐσλεὶ), the son of Naggai (οῦ Ναγγαὶ). the son of Maath (τοῦ Μαὰθ), the son of Mattathias (τοῦ Ματταθίου), the son of Semein (τοῦ Σεμεεὶν), the son of Josech (τοῦ Ἰωσὴχ), and the son of Joda (τοῦ Ἰωδὰ).  Some of these names are familiar, but it is difficult to assign any particular person to these names.

The ancestors of Jesus (Lk 3:24-3:24)

“Heli was

The son of Matthat,

The son of Levi,

The son of Melchi,

The son of Jannai,

The son of Joseph.”

 

τοῦ Ματθὰτ τοῦ Λευεὶ τοῦ Μελχεὶ τοῦ Ἰανναὶ τοῦ Ἰωσὴφ

 

Luke said that Jesus’ grandfather was Heli.  From then on there is a major difference in the genealogies of Matthew and Luke.  A simple solution to this problem would be to say that Luke has presented the genealogy of Mary, not Joseph.  The father of Mary was Heli.  However, that does not explain where the names came from.  The end of the genealogy of Matthew, chapter 1:15, is Joseph with his father Jacob.  Most of the people mentioned in the genealogy of Matthew could be found in other biblical works.  However, where Matthew got these last 9 generations of names was unclear.  He must have had some source, since he was so meticulous following 1 Chronicles.  Zerubbabel was Abiud’s father.  Abiud was the father of Eliakim, while he was the father of Azor.  He, in turn was the father of Zadok, whose son was Achim.  His son was Eliud.  Eliud’s son was Eleazar whose son was Matthan.  Matthan was the father of Jacob, the father of Joseph.  None of those names are here as Luke said that Heli was the son of Matthat (τοῦ Ματθὰτ), the son of Levi (τοῦ Λευεὶ), the son of Melchi (τοῦ Μελχεὶ), the son of Jannai (τοῦ Ἰανναὶ), the son of Joseph (τοῦ Ἰωσὴφ).

The list of the first four major apostles (Mt 10:2-10:4)

“These are the names

Of the twelve apostles.

First, Simon,

Also known as Peter,

And his brother Andrew.

James,

The son of Zebedee,

And his brother John.”

 

Τῶν δὲ δώδεκα ἀποστόλων τὰ ὀνόματά ἐστιν ταῦτα· πρῶτος Σίμων ὁ λεγόμενος Πέτρος καὶ Ἀνδρέας ὁ ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ, καὶ Ἰάκωβος ὁ τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου καὶ Ἰωάνης ὁ ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ,

 

This section about the names of the 12 apostles is similar to Mark, chapter 3:16-19 and Luke, chapter 6:13-16.  This list can also be compared to the list in the Acts of the Apostles, chapter 1:13.  Notice that they are no longer called the 12 disciples (δώδεκα μαθητὰς) but the 12 apostles (δὲ δώδεκα ἀποστόλων).  They had changed from being mere followers (μαθητὰς) to now being sent out as apostles (ἀποστόλων).  These are names of the 12 apostles (Τῶν δὲ δώδεκα ἀποστόλων τὰ ὀνόματά ἐστιν ταῦτα).  Matthew had already mentioned, in chapter 4:18-22, the first 4 names, but the other names appear here for the first time, except for Matthew the tax collector.  First of all, there was Simon, known as Peter (πρῶτος Σίμων ὁ λεγόμενος Πέτρος), with his brother Andrew (καὶ Ἀνδρέας ὁ ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ).  Then the 2 sons of Zebedee (ὁ τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου), James and John (καὶ Ἰάκωβος καὶ Ἰωάνης ὁ ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ).  Clearly, these 4 apostles were considered the most important with Peter at the top of this group.  In all the listings, they are always first.  However, Andrew comes after James and John in Mark and in the Acts of the Apostles.