The Son of Man (Lk 21:27-21:27)

“Then they will see

The Son of Man

Coming in a cloud

With power

And great glory.”

 

καὶ τότε ὄψονται τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐρχόμενον ἐν νεφέλῃ μετὰ δυνάμεως καὶ δόξης πολλῆ

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that then they would see (καὶ τότε ὄψονται) the Son of Man (τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) coming in a cloud (ἐρχόμενον ἐν νεφέλῃ) with power (μετὰ δυνάμεως) and great glory (καὶ δόξης πολλῆ).  This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 24:30, and in Mark, chapter 13:26.  Mark said that they would all see or experience the Son of Man (καὶ τότε ὄψονται τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) coming in the clouds (ἐρχόμενον ἐν νεφέλαις) with his great power (μετὰ δυνάμεως πολλῆς) and glory (καὶ δόξης).  Matthew indicated that Jesus had an introductory comment that the sign of the Son of Man would appear in the heavens (καὶ τότε φανήσεται τὸ σημεῖον τοῦ Υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐν οὐρανῷ).  Then all the tribes or races of people on the earth would mourn or lament (καὶ τότε κόψονται πᾶσαι αἱ φυλαὶ τῆς γῆς).  After these phrases, then came the common element that they would all see or experience the Son of Man (καὶ ὄψονται τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) coming on the clouds of heaven (ἐρχόμενον ἐπὶ τῶν νεφελῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ) with his power (μετὰ δυνάμεως) and great glory (καὶ δόξης πολλῆς).  The clouds were the common place where theophanies in the Old Testament occurred, as Yahweh often appeared in a cloud on a mountain.  The Son of Man is a reference to Jesus himself as a Hebrew Messianic figure.  What do you know about the Second Coming of Jesus?

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Woe to the laughers! (Lk 6:25-6:25)

“Woe to you

Who are laughing now!

You will mourn

And weep.”

 

οὐαί, οἱ γελῶντες νῦν, ὅτι πενθήσετε καὶ κλαύσετε

 

Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus said that the laughing ones now (οἱ γελῶντες νῦν) would be cursed (οὐαί), using the second person plural.  They would mourn and weep (ὅτι πενθήσετε καὶ κλαύσετε) in the future.  Once again, this unique saying of Luke is the reverse of one of his beatitudes in verse 21, where he indicated that Jesus said that those who were weeping now (οἱ κλαίοντες νῦν) would be blessed, happy or fortunate (μακάριοι) because they would later laugh (ὅτι γελάσετ), using the second person plural.  There is no equivalent to this in Matthew, except for the mourners in chapter 5:4.  Luke has Jesus say the opposite thing about those laughing now, as they would weep later.

The bridegroom is here (Lk 5:34-5:34)

“Jesus said to them.

‘You cannot make

Wedding guests fast

While the bridegroom

Is with them.

Can you?’”

 

ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς Μὴ δύνασθε τοὺς υἱοὺς τοῦ νυμφῶνος, ἐν ᾧ ὁ νυμφίος μετ’ αὐτῶν ἐστιν, ποιῆσαι νηστεῦσαι;

 

Luke indicated that Jesus asked them with a question (ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς).  Would they ask the sons of the bridal chamber (Μὴ δύνασθε τοὺς υἱοὺς τοῦ νυμφῶνος,), the wedding guests, to fast (ποιῆσαι νηστεῦσαι), as long as the bridegroom was with them (ἐν ᾧ ὁ νυμφίος μετ’ αὐτῶν ἐστιν)?  Mark, chapter 2:20, and Matthew, chapter 9:15, are similar to Luke, so that Mark might be the source of this saying of Jesus.  Mark indicated that Jesus directly responded to the disciples of John, as he compared himself to a bridegroom.  Thus, the wedding guests were not able to mourn, while the bridegroom, Jesus, was with them.  Fasting was often associated with distress and mourning.  As long as Jesus, the bridegroom, was around them, they were not able or could not fast, because this was a time of joy and good news, not fasting.

The Son of Man on the clouds (Mt 24:30-24:30)

“Then the sign

Of the Son of Man

Will appear

In heaven.

Then all the tribes

Of the earth

Will mourn.

They will see

The Son of Man

Coming on

The clouds of heaven

With power

And great glory.”

 

καὶ τότε φανήσεται τὸ σημεῖον τοῦ Υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐν οὐρανῷ, καὶ τότε κόψονται πᾶσαι αἱ φυλαὶ τῆς γῆς καὶ ὄψονται τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐρχόμενον ἐπὶ τῶν νεφελῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ μετὰ δυνάμεως καὶ δόξης πολλῆς·

 

This is exactly the same, almost word for word, in Mark, chapter 13:26, and in Luke, chapter 21:27, for the last sentence.  The first two sentences, however, are unique to Matthew.  Jesus said that the sign of the Son of Man would appear in the heavens (καὶ τότε φανήσεται τὸ σημεῖον τοῦ Υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐν οὐρανῷ).  Then all the tribes or races of people on the earth would mourn or lament (καὶ τότε κόψονται πᾶσαι αἱ φυλαὶ τῆς γῆς).  They would all see or experience the Son of Man (καὶ ὄψονται τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) coming on the clouds of heaven (ἐρχόμενον ἐπὶ τῶν νεφελῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ) with his power (μετὰ δυνάμεως) and great glory (καὶ δόξης πολλῆς).  The clouds were the common place where theophanies in the Old Testament occurred, as Yahweh often appeared in a cloud on a mountain.

No fasting with the bridegroom present (Mt 9:15-9:15)

“Jesus said to them.

‘The wedding guests

Cannot mourn

As long as

The bridegroom

Is with them.

The days will come,

When the bridegroom

Is taken away

From them,

Then they will fast.’”

 

καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς Μὴ δύνανται οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ νυμφῶνος πενθεῖν ἐφ’ ὅσον μετ’ αὐτῶν ἐστιν ὁ νυμφίος; ἐλεύσονται δὲ ἡμέραι ὅταν ἀπαρθῇ ἀπ’ αὐτῶν ὁ νυμφίος, καὶ τότε νηστεύσουσιν.

 

This bridegroom story is almost the same as in Mark, chapter 2:19-20, and Luke, chapter 5:34-35.  Jesus spoke directly in response to the disciples of John (καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς).  He compared himself to a bridegroom (ὁ νυμφίος).  The wedding guests or the sons of the bride chamber were not able to mourn (Μὴ δύνανται οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ νυμφῶνος πενθεῖν), while the bridegroom, Jesus, was with them (ἐφ’ ὅσον μετ’ αὐτῶν ἐστιν ὁ νυμφίος).  However, when the days came when the bridegroom of Jesus was taken away from them (ἐλεύσονται δὲ ἡμέραι ὅταν ἀπαρθῇ ἀπ’ αὐτῶν ὁ νυμφίος,), after his death, then they would fast (καὶ τότε νηστεύσουσιν).  Fasting would come when Jesus was gone.

The second beatitude about mourning (Mt 5:4-5:4)

“Blessed are

Those who mourn!

They shall be comforted.”

 

μακάριοι οἱ πενθοῦντες, ὅτι αὐτοὶ παρακληθήσονται.

 

Once again, Matthew and Luke are not in agreement.  Matthew wanted the mourners (οἱ πενθοῦντες) to be comforted (ὅτι αὐτοὶ παρακληθήσονται), while Luke, chapter 6:21, talked about the hungry, that will be a later spiritual beatitude in Matthew, chapter 5:6.  These humble righteous ones who suffer now in their mourning will be comforted or strengthened.  Thus, they are the blessed or fortunate ones (μακάριοι).  For some reason the Bible of Jerusalem has this beatitude the 3rd instead of the 2rd beatitude.

Compassion (Zech 12:10-12:10)

“I will pour out

A spirit of compassion,

A spirit of supplication

On the house of David,

On the inhabitants of Jerusalem.

Thus,

When they look on the one

Whom they have pierced,

They shall mourn for him,

Like for an only child.

They shall weep bitterly

Over him,

Like one weeps

Over a first-born.”

The house of David and the people of Jerusalem would have a spirit of compassion and supplication that came from Yahweh.  When they killed anyone with the sword, they would mourn for them, as if they were their own first born only child.  Unlike most warriors, Yahweh’s people would have compassion and mourn for their dead enemies.