Luke indicated that Jesus said that those in Judea (τότε οἱ ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ) should flee to the mountains (φευγέτωσαν εἰς τὰ ὄρη). Those people inside the city (καὶ οἱ ἐν μέσῳ αὐτῆς) ought to leave it (ἐκχωρείτωσαν). Once again, this a unique term of Luke, ἐκχωρείτωσαν that means to depart, withdraw, go out, or flee. Also, those out in the country (καὶ οἱ ἐν ταῖς χώραις), should not enter the city (μὴ εἰσερχέσθωσαν εἰς αὐτήν). This is exactly the same, word for word in Mark, chapter 13:14, and in Matthew, chapter 24:16, except that Luke added this idea about not coming into the city. Mark indicated that Jesus said that those people in Judea (τότε οἱ ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ) should flee or escape to the mountains or the hills (φευγέτωσαν εἰς τὰ ὄρη). Matthew was exactly the same. Jesus said that those people in Judea (τότε οἱ ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ) should flee or escape to the mountains or the hills (φευγέτωσαν εἰς τὰ ὄρη). Head to the hills! Maybe this is a reference to the Jewish revolt in 66-70 CE, when many Jews fled Judea as the Jerusalem Temple was destroyed. They were to get out of Dodge, leave the city of Jerusalem. Have you ever had to flee from some place?
Luke indicated that Jesus, the Lord, replied (εἶπεν δὲ ὁ Κύριος) that if they had faith (Εἰ ἔχετε πίστιν) the size of a mustard seed (ὡς κόκκον σινάπεως), they could say (ἐλέγετε) to this mulberry or sycamore tree (ἂν τῇ συκαμίνῳ ταύτῃ), be rooted up (Ἐκριζώθητι) and planted in the sea (καὶ φυτεύθητι ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃ). Luke is the only biblical writer to use the Greek term συκαμίνῳ that means a black mulberry tree or a sycamore tree that had medicinal value. Then this tree would obey them (καὶ ὑπήκουσεν ἂν ὑμῖν). There are expanded faith sayings that can also be found in Mark, chapter 9:28-29, and Matthew, chapter 17:19-21, who are much closer to each other. Matthew indicated that the disciples came to Jesus privately (Τότε προσελθόντες οἱ μαθηταὶ τῷ Ἰησοῦ). They wondered why they were not able to cast out the evil spirits from that boy (κατ’ ἰδίαν εἶπον Διὰ τί ἡμεῖς οὐκ ἠδυνήθημεν ἐκβαλεῖν αὐτό). Jesus reminded them (ὁ δὲ λέγει αὐτοῖς) of their little faith (Διὰ τὴν ὀλιγοπιστίαν ὑμῶν), a term used predominately by Matthew. Jesus came back with a solemn pronouncement (ἀμὴν γὰρ λέγω ὑμῖν) that if they had faith the size of a mustard seed (ἐὰν ἔχητε πίστιν ὡς κόκκον σινάπεως), like here in Luke, they could move mountains from here to there (ἐρεῖτε τῷ ὄρει τούτῳ Μετάβα ἔνθεν ἐκεῖ, καὶ μεταβήσεται). Nothing would be impossible for them (καὶ οὐδὲν ἀδυνατήσει ὑμῖν). If they had faith with prayer and fasting (εἰ μὴ ἐν προσευχῇ καὶ νηστείᾳ), they would be able to cast the evil spirits out (τοῦτο δὲ τὸ γένος οὐκ ἐκπορεύεται). Matthew continued to emphasize the lack of faith or the little faith of the disciples of Jesus. Mark said that the disciples wondered why they were not able to cast out the evil spirit from that boy (Ὅτι ἡμεῖς οὐκ ἠδυνήθημεν ἐκβαλεῖν αὐτό). The disciples were concerned that they must have lacked something that made it impossible for them to get rid of this evil spirit that was in that boy. Mark added the need for prayer. There was no emphasis on faith as in Matthew, where Jesus talked about faith and the mustard seed. Mark emphasized prayer, as he indicated that Jesus said that this kind of evil spirit could only be expelled (Τοῦτο τὸ γένος ἐν οὐδενὶ δύναται ἐξελθεῖν) through prayer (εἰ μὴ ἐν προσευχῇ). Prayer might imply faith, but it is not explicit here in Luke. Which is more important to you, faith or prayer?
Luke indicated that Jesus questioned them whether anyone of them (Τίς ἄνθρωπος ἐξ ὑμῶν) who had 100 sheep (ἔχων ἑκατὸν πρόβατα), but lost one of them (καὶ ἀπολέσας ἐξ αὐτῶν ἓν), would then not leave the 99 in the open field wilderness (οὐ καταλείπει τὰ ἐνενήκοντα ἐννέα ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ)? He would go after the one that was lost (καὶ πορεύεται ἐπὶ τὸ ἀπολωλὸς), until he found it (ἕως εὕρῃ αὐτό). This parable of the lost sheep can also be found in Matthew, chapter 18:12, with some minor changes, perhaps a Q source. Matthew indicated that Jesus said that this person, man, or shepherd had 100 sheep (ἐὰν γένηταί τινι ἀνθρώπῳ ἑκατὸν πρόβατα). One of these sheep wandered away from the rest of them and was lost (καὶ πλανηθῇ ἓν ἐξ αὐτῶν). Thus, would he not leave the other 99 sheep in the mountains (οὐχὶ ἀφήσει τὰ ἐνενήκοντα ἐννέα ἐπὶ τὰ ὄρη)? He would then search for the lost sheep that had wandered away (καὶ πορευθεὶς ζητεῖ τὸ πλανώμενον). This was a simple question. Would you leave 99 sheep to search for one lost sheep?
Luke said that Jesus had commanded (παρήγγελλεν) the unclean spirit (γὰρ τῷ πνεύματι τῷ ἀκαθάρτῳ) to come out of this man (ἐξελθεῖν ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου). Many times (πολλοῖς γὰρ χρόνοις), it had seized him (συνηρπάκει αὐτόν). Thus, he was bound with chains (καὶ ἐδεσμεύετο ἁλύσεσιν) and kept in foot shackles (καὶ πέδαις φυλασσόμενος). However, he would break the chains or bonds (καὶ διαρήσσων τὰ δεσμὰ). He was driven (ἠλαύνετο) by a demon (ἀπὸ τοῦ δαιμονίου) into the wild desert (εἰς τὰς ἐρήμους). Here in Luke, Jesus commanded the unclean spirit to come out of the demoniac. Mark, chapter 5:8, also indicated that Jesus said to the demoniac that this unclean spirit should come out of this man. Thus, Jesus spoke directly to the unclean spirit here also. While Matthew, chapter 8:28, just said that these possessed men were wild people, Mark, chapter 5:4-5, had an elaborate description much like this in Luke. Mark said that this demoniac had often been bound or restrained with foot shackles and chains. However, he tore up these chains and shattered his foot shackles into pieces. No one had the strength to subdue him. Constantly, all night and day, he was howling or crying among the tombs and on the hills or in the mountains. He was cutting or bruising himself with stones. This was not a pretty sight or a happy guy. Have you ever met a crazy possessed person?
There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 24:15-16, and in Luke, chapter 21:20-21. However, only Matthew specifically mentioned the prophet Daniel, while Luke was more specific about the city of Jerusalem. Mark said that Jesus warned them that when they saw the desolating sacrilege or cursed devastation (Ὅταν δὲ ἴδητε τὸ βδέλυγμα τῆς ἐρημώσεως) standing or set up in the place where it should not be (ἑστηκότα ὅπου οὐ δεῖ), those reading this should understand (ὁ ἀναγινώσκων νοείτω) what was happening. Then those people in Judea (τότε οἱ ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ) should flee or escape to the mountains or the hills (φευγέτωσαν εἰς τὰ ὄρη). Head to the hills! Maybe this is a reference to the Jewish revolt in 66-70 CE, when many Jews fled Judea as the Jerusalem Temple was destroyed.
This is a description of this demoniac, while Matthew just said that he was a wild person, but Luke, chapter 8:29, has a description much like this. Mark said that this demoniac had often been bound or restrained with foot shackles and chains (διὰ τὸ αὐτὸν πολλάκις πέδαις καὶ ἁλύσεσιν δεδέσθαι). However, he tore in two the chains (καὶ διεσπάσθαι ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ τὰς ἁλύσεις). He broke or shattered his foot shackles into pieces (καὶ τὰς πέδας συντετρῖφθαι). No one had the strength to subdue him (καὶ οὐδεὶς ἴσχυεν αὐτὸν δαμάσαι). Constantly all night and day (καὶ διὰ παντὸς νυκτὸς καὶ ἡμέρας), he was always howling or crying among the tombs and on the hills or mountains (ἐν τοῖς μνήμασιν καὶ ἐν τοῖς ὄρεσιν ἦν κράζων). He was cutting or bruising himself with stones (καὶ κατακόπτων ἑαυτὸν λίθοις). This was not a pretty sight or a happy guy.
This is exactly the same, word for word in Mark, chapter 13:14, and in Luke, chapter 21:21. Then those people in Judea (τότε οἱ ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ) should flee or escape to the mountains or the hills (φευγέτωσαν εἰς τὰ ὄρη). Head to the hills! Maybe this is a reference to the Jewish revolt in 66-70 CE, when many Jews fled Judea as the Jerusalem Temple was destroyed.
Once again there was an oracle of Yahweh, via Haggai. This time there were suggestions on what to do. They were to go up into the hills or mountains around Jerusalem. There, they would get some wood to build the house that Yahweh wanted. Then, Yahweh would take pleasure in it by being honored and glorified.
This text is a very colorful opening to the Book of Micah. Yahweh would make a grand appearance. As usual for prophets, Micah asked the people to listen. However, the earth itself was also asked to listen to the prophet Micah. Yahweh was going to be a witness against the people and the land itself. Yahweh was going to come out of his holy Temple. He was going to come down to the high places on earth. The mountains would melt under him, while the valleys would open up wider. Then in very descriptive terms, the presence of Yahweh would be like wax near a fire or water pouring down a steep incline. The powerful heavenly Yahweh was about to make an appearance on earth.
This later oracle of Yahweh assumed that the Israelites had been taken from their land in captivity. However, in this restoration, those plowing would be greater than those reaping. Those who treaded the grapes would be more than those sowing the seeds. There would be abundance and hope all around. The mountains and hills would drip and flow with abundant sweet wine. The Israelites would have their fortunes restored, so that they would rebuild their cities and inhabit them. They would plant vineyards and drink wine. They would plant gardens with lots of fruit. These Israelites would be planted on their own land, never to be plucked away again.