“They have now been disobedient
In order that
By the mercy
Shown to you,
They also may
οὕτως καὶ οὗτοι νῦν ἠπείθησαν τῷ ὑμετέρῳ ἐλέει ἵνα καὶ αὐτοὶ νῦν ἐλεηθῶσιν.
Paul said that the Jewish people have now been disobedient (οὕτως καὶ οὗτοι νῦν ἠπείθησαν) in order that by the mercy shown to you (τῷ ὑμετέρῳ ἐλέει), they also may receive mercy (ἵνα καὶ αὐτοὶ νῦν ἐλεηθῶσιν). These Jewish disobedient people made it possible for God to show mercy to these gentile Christians. However, these Jewish people may also receive mercy from God, just as the gentiles had received mercy from God. It was not a zero-sum game. God could be merciful to both the Jewish Christians and the gentile Christians. How merciful is God?
“The rich man
Have mercy on me!
Of his finger
To cool my tongue!
I am in agony
In these flames.’”
καὶ αὐτὸς φωνήσας εἶπεν Πάτερ Ἀβραάμ, ἐλέησόν με καὶ πέμψον Λάζαρον ἵνα βάψῃ τὸ ἄκρον τοῦ δακτύλου αὐτοῦ ὕδατος καὶ καταψύξῃ τὴν γλῶσσάν μου, ὅτι ὀδυνῶμαι ἐν τῇ φλογὶ ταύτῃ
This parable story about the poor man Lazarus and an unnamed rich man is only found in Luke, but not in the other gospels. Luke indicated that Jesus said that the rich man called out (καὶ αὐτὸς φωνήσας εἶπεν) to Abraham, calling him father (Πάτερ Ἀβραάμ). He wanted Abraham to have mercy on him (ἐλέησόν με). He wanted him to send Lazarus (καὶ πέμψον Λάζαρον) to dip the tip of his finger (ἵνα βάψῃ τὸ ἄκρον τοῦ δακτύλου αὐτοῦ) in water (ὕδατος) to cool his tongue (καὶ καταψύξῃ τὴν γλῶσσάν μου) because he was suffering in agony (ὅτι ὀδυνῶμαι) from all those flames (ἐν τῇ φλογὶ ταύτῃ). Once again, Luke has a unique use among the biblical writers of the Greek word καταψύξῃ, meaning to cool or refresh. This rich man was suffering in a burning hell. He wanted Abraham to send Lazarus to make life easier for him. Are you afraid of a burning hell?
“But woe to you!
And every kind
And the love of God!
It is these
To have practiced
ἀλλὰ οὐαὶ ὑμῖν τοῖς Φαρισαίοις, ὅτι ἀποδεκατοῦτε τὸ ἡδύοσμον καὶ τὸ πήγανον καὶ πᾶν λάχανον, καὶ παρέρχεσθε τὴν κρίσιν καὶ τὴν ἀγάπην τοῦ Θεοῦ· ταῦτα δὲ ἔδει ποιῆσαι κἀκεῖνα μὴ παρεῖναι.
Next Luke had the Lord Jesus curse the Pharisees the way that Matthew had done. Jesus said woe to them, the Pharisees (ἀλλὰ οὐαὶ ὑμῖν τοῖς Φαρισαίοις)! They had paid their tithes (ὅτι ἀποδεκατοῦτε) of mint (τὸ ἡδύοσμον), rue (καὶ τὸ πήγανον), and every kind of herb (καὶ πᾶν λάχανον). However, they had neglected (καὶ παρέρχεσθε) justice (τὴν κρίσιν) and the love of God (καὶ τὴν ἀγάπην τοῦ Θεοῦ). They ought to practice these things (ταῦτα δὲ ἔδει ποιῆσαι), without neglecting the other things (κἀκεῖνα μὴ παρεῖναι). This is like Matthew, chapter 23:23, where Jesus cursed the Pharisees and the Scribes. Matthew indicated that Jesus said woe to them because of their insistence on tithing. He blamed them for their concern about the tithing of the various aromatic spices of mint, dill, and cumin plants, instead of the more serious matters of the law. Thus, they neglected, the serious practice of justice, mercy, and faith. They should have spent more time on these issues without neglecting the other things. This seemed like a critique of misplaced priorities, with their legalistic sense of tithing being more important than justice, mercy, faith, and the Mosaic law itself. Luke had almost the same critique here, but the tithing herbs are slightly different. He also wanted their concerns to be about justice and God’s love. Otherwise the critique was pretty much the same. Do you neglect justice and mercy in your life?
“The lawyer said.
Who showed him
Jesus said to him.
ὁ δὲ εἶπεν Ὁ ποιήσας τὸ ἔλεος μετ’ αὐτοῦ. εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς Πορεύου καὶ σὺ ποίει ὁμοίως.
Luke finished his unique story. The lawyer responded to Jesus (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν). He said that the one who showed the wounded man mercy and compassion (Ὁ ποιήσας τὸ ἔλεος μετ’ αὐτοῦ) was the good neighbor. Then Jesus remarked (εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς) that he should go on his way and do likewise (Πορεύου καὶ σὺ ποίει ὁμοίως). There was a very satisfying ending to this story of the Good Samaritan. Both the lawyer and Jesus were satisfied. The lawyer gave the right answer by saying that the true neighbor was the merciful and compassionate Samaritan. He did not in fact use the term Samaritan. He merely called him the compassionate one. Jesus then came back to the original question that this lawyer had posed about what he needed to gain eternal life. He told this lawyer to act just like the Good Samaritan had if he wanted to inherit eternal life, the path to eternal life. Are you willing to follow it?
From the crowd
I beg you
To look at my son!
He is my only child.’”
καὶ ἰδοὺ ἀνὴρ ἀπὸ τοῦ ὄχλου ἐβόησεν λέγων Διδάσκαλε, δέομαί σου ἐπιβλέψαι ἐπὶ τὸν υἱόν μου, ὅτι μονογενής μοί ἐστιν,
Luke said that just then a man from the crowd shouted out (ἰδοὺ ἀνὴρ ἀπὸ τοῦ ὄχλου ἐβόησεν λέγων) “Teacher (Διδάσκαλε)!” He begged Jesus to look at his son (δέομαί σου ἐπιβλέψαι ἐπὶ τὸν υἱόν μου) who was his only child (ὅτι μονογενής μοί ἐστιν). Jesus and Luke had an affection for only children. This story of the man with the incurable son can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels, Matthew, chapter 17:15, Mark, chapter 9:17-18, and here in Luke, but there are minor differences in all 3 accounts. Mark said that it was someone from the crowd who spoke to Jesus, not a kneeling man as in Matthew. This man addressed Jesus as “Teacher (Διδάσκαλε),” like Luke, and not as “Lord (Κύριε)” as in Matthew. He had brought his son to Jesus because his son had a spirit that made him unable to speak. He was not immediately identified as an epileptic, but as a mute person. Matthew said that a man approached Jesus and knelt before him. Only Matthew has this man kneel in front of Jesus. Thus, this was a kneeling man, not someone from the crowd yelling out to Jesus. This man addressed Jesus as the Lord (Κύριε). He wanted Jesus to have mercy on his son, who was an epileptic, not mute. Epileptics were often considered to be possessed by the devil. Even today, we are still unsure of the exact cause of epilepsy seizures. This man’s son suffered very badly. He often fell into a fire and into water. Have you ever known a chronically sick child?
Even as your Father
Γίνεσθε οἰκτίρμονες, καθὼς ὁ Πατὴρ ὑμῶν οἰκτίρμων ἐστίν
The result of the kindness of God was that the followers of Jesus should also be merciful (Γίνεσθε οἰκτίρμονες), even as their Father is merciful (καθὼς ὁ Πατὴρ ὑμῶν οἰκτίρμων ἐστίν). Matthew, chapter 5:48, had Jesus say that they should be perfect, like their heavenly Father by loving and greeting everyone. Only Matthew had this emphasis on perfection, completeness, or maturity, while Luke had Jesus emphasize mercy. Would you rather be merciful or perfect?
“Then Jesus said to them.
‘The Son of Man is
Lord of the Sabbath.’”
καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Κύριός ἐστιν τοῦ σαββάτου ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου.
Luke indicated that Jesus then said to them (καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς) that the Son of Man (ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) is Lord of the Sabbath (Κύριός ἐστιν τοῦ σαββάτου). There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 12:8, and Mark, chapter 2:28, probably indicating that Mark was the source of this comment. However, the other 2 gospels had more elaboration. Mark had Jesus say to those around him that the Sabbath was made for man, humans, or mankind, not humans for the Sabbath. Then he added the comment that is here in Luke that the Son of Man was the Lord of the Sabbath, which was picked up by the other two synoptic gospels. Matthew had Jesus begin with a solemn proclamation that someone greater than the Temple was here, a clear reference to Jesus himself. They did not know what the saying about mercy was all about. Matthew then used the same citation of Hosea chapter 6:6, that he had earlier in chapter 9:13. Jesus explained that he desired mercy, just as Yahweh wanted real faithful love, not mere sacrifices. Hosea wanted the Israelites to have real knowledge of God, rather than worry about burnt offerings. Thus, the Pharisees should not have condemned the innocent or guiltless ones, since Jesus and his disciples had done nothing wrong. He then concluded with the saying that the Son of Man was the Lord of the Sabbath. Jesus then could control the Sabbath, not the other way around. Instead of the Sabbath as a gift to humans, Jesus would reinterpret the laws of the Sabbath as the Lord of the Sabbath.
“Many sternly ordered him
To be quiet.
But he cried out
Even more loudly.
‘Son of David!
Have mercy on me!’”
καὶ ἐπετίμων αὐτῷ πολλοὶ ἵνα σιωπήσῃ· ὁ δὲ πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἔκραζεν Υἱὲ Δαυείδ, ἐλέησόν με.
Both Matthew, chapter 20:31, and Luke, chapter 18:39, have something similar. Mark said that many in the crowd rebuked, admonished, or ordered him to be quiet or silent (καὶ ἐπετίμων αὐτῷ πολλοὶ ἵνα σιωπήσῃ). But he shouted out even more loudly (ὁ δὲ πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἔκραζεν). He repeated again what he had shouted out earlier. He called Jesus, the Son of David (Υἱὲ Δαυείδ). He wanted Jesus to have mercy on them (ἐλέησόν με). This would become a Christian cry for mercy.