Lemuel (Prov 31:1-31:1)

“The words of King Lemuel,

An oracle

That his mother taught him.”

Who is Lemuel? This is the only mention of him here. He is a lot like Agur. He may be a real person or another name for Solomon since he talks about his mother’s teaching, which would have been David’s wife Bathsheba. This is either an oracle or a king of Massa, or just like Agur, another name for Solomon.

The descendents of Ishmael (1 Chr 1:29-1:31)

“These are their genealogies. The first-born of Ishmael was Nebaioth, with Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam, Mishma, Dumah, Massa, Hadad, Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah. These are the sons of Ishmael.”

This section is based on Genesis, chapter 25, with has exactly the same names. Ishmael had 12 sons who then became 12 princes, much like Jacob who will have 12 sons. Ishmael was the hard luck outcast, but important because he was technically the first born of Abraham. Among his 12 sons, (1) Nebaioth will be the father of the people who settle in Edom. The descendents of (2) Kedar settled in the Arabian Desert. (3) Adbeel settled somewhere southwest of the Dead Sea. There are two other people named (4) Mibsam and (5) Mishma in the bible. There are a number of places named after (6) Dumah, the most famous on the Syrian border. The (7) Massa descendents settled somewhere near the Babylonian border. (8) Hadad frequently turns up as a name of some princes in Edom. A town in Syria is named after (9) Tema. (10) Jetur, (11) Naphish, and (12) Kedemah seem to be associated with the Hagrites.   They mostly settled in the Arabian Desert. Thus you have the 12 tribes or sons of Ishmael just like there will be 12 tribes or sons of Jacob.