“There were also
The sons of Zebedee,
Who were partners
Then Jesus said
‘Do not be afraid!
From now on
You will be
ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ Ἰάκωβον καὶ Ἰωάνην υἱοὺς Ζεβεδαίου, οἳ ἦσαν κοινωνοὶ τῷ Σίμωνι. καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς τὸν Σίμωνα ὁ Ἰησοῦς Μὴ φοβοῦ· ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν ἀνθρώπους ἔσῃ ζωγρῶ
Suddenly, Luke introduced two other people, the sons of Zebedee, James and John, who are companions or partners of Simon. There is no mention of Simon’s brother Andrew here, but he played a major role in the other 3 gospels. In John, chapter 1:35-42, Andrew, Simon’s brother, was a disciple of John the Baptist. There is a major difference between Luke here and Matthew, chapter 4:18-22, and Mark, chapter 1:17-18, who were very similar. They did not have the elaborate story about the fishing in the Sea of Galilee that is here. Mark and Matthew had the brothers Simon and Andrew being fishermen that Jesus saw along the Sea of Galilee, casting or dropping a net into the sea. Mark did not mention the other name of Simon as Peter, like Matthew did. However, it was common for people to have both a Hebrew name like Simon and a Greek name like Peter. John, chapter 1:40-42, had these two brothers from the town of Bethsaida. Mark and Matthew also introduced John and James, the fisherman sons of Zebedee. Zebedee might have been fairly successful, since he was explicitly mentioned and seemed to own a boat. These two brothers, James and John, were in a boat mending their fishing nets with their father, not casting them out to sea. Luke said that James and John, the sons of Zebedee (ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ Ἰάκωβον καὶ Ἰωάνην υἱοὺς Ζεβεδαίου), were partners or companions with Simon (οἳ ἦσαν κοινωνοὶ τῷ Σίμωνι), so that they may have shared a boat or boats. Then Jesus told Simon (καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς τὸν Σίμωνα ὁ Ἰησοῦς) not to be afraid (Μὴ φοβοῦ). From now on, he would be catching people or men, not fish (ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν ἀνθρώπους ἔσῃ ζωγρῶ). They were no longer going to fish for marine life, but human life. They were to be on the hunt for humans, and not fish.
“When Jesus was
Twelve years old,
They went up
For the festival.”
Καὶ ὅτε ἐγένετο ἐτῶν δώδεκα, ἀναβαινόντων αὐτῶν κατὰ τὸ ἔθος τῆς ἑορτῆς,
Now we have another unique saying of Luke about the age of Jesus. When Jesus was 12 years old (Καὶ ὅτε ἐγένετο ἐτῶν δώδεκα), the whole family went up to Jerusalem (ἀναβαινόντων αὐτῶν) as usual for the festival of Passover (κατὰ τὸ ἔθος τῆς ἑορτῆς). This was not a bar mitzvah or confirmation, since this Jewish practice came later. However, Jesus would have been on the verge of puberty. The number 12 would play a major role in the life of Jesus, since he had 12 apostles, who were called the Twelve. This episode is the only insight into the life of Jesus between his birth and the baptism by John, that can be found in any of the canonical biblical gospel narratives. There are many stories about the boyhood of Jesus in some apocryphal gospels. Thus, this story takes on a special canonical importance.
“Is not this the carpenter’s son?
Is not his mother
Are not his brothers
Are not all his sisters with us?
Where then did he
Get all this?’”
οὐχ οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ τοῦ τέκτονος υἱός; οὐχ ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ λέγεται Μαριὰμ καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ αὐτοῦ Ἰάκωβος καὶ Ἰωσὴφ καὶ Σίμων καὶ Ἰούδας;
καὶ αἱ ἀδελφαὶ αὐτοῦ οὐχὶ πᾶσαι πρὸς ἡμᾶς εἰσιν; πόθεν οὖν τούτῳ ταῦτα πάντα;
This story about the relatives of Jesus can be found in Mark, chapter 6:3. The local people asked, was he not this carpenter’s son (οὐχ οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ τοῦ τέκτονος υἱός)? Matthew did not use the carpenter’s name, when in the prologue Joseph played a major role. A carpenter could also mean a builder or artisan. However, Matthew explicitly mentioned the name of Jesus’ mother, Mary, who played a minor role in the prologue. Was not his mother called Mary (οὐχ ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ λέγεται Μαριὰμ)? Were not his brothers James, Joseph, Simon, and Judas (καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ αὐτοῦ Ἰάκωβος καὶ Ἰωσὴφ καὶ Σίμων καὶ Ἰούδας)? Were not all his sisters there with them also (καὶ αἱ ἀδελφαὶ αὐτοῦ οὐχὶ πᾶσαι πρὸς ἡμᾶς εἰσιν)? Where then did he get all this knowledge and power (πόθεν οὖν τούτῳ ταῦτα πάντα)? Once again there is the question of the brothers and sisters of Jesus as mentioned earlier in chapter 12:46. These brothers and sisters could be biological brothers or sisters, half-brothers and half-sisters from a first marriage of Joseph, or kissing cousins or other close cousins of the family. The Hebrew and Aramaic language did not have a distinctive word for cousins, so that the word “brother” and “sister” was often used to mean more than a biological brother. Just as today, people sometimes refers to others as brothers or sisters, when there is no biological link. Half-brothers often refer to themselves as brothers or sisters today also. The traditional belief of Christians, even though the Reformation period, has been that Mary was a virgin, so that Jesus was her only son. However, the Greek language did have a word for cousins. Here there are explicit names for the brothers of Jesus, James, Joseph, Simon, and Judas, who may have been leaders in the early Christian community but were never mentioned as disciples. They clearly were relatives of Jesus, exactly how is not clear
“All the crowds
‘Can this be
The Son of David?’”
καὶ ἐξίσταντο πάντες οἱ ὄχλοι καὶ ἔλεγον Μήτι οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ υἱὸς Δαυείδ;
There is something similar to this earlier in Matthew, chapter 9:8, 9:27, and 9:32. All these crowds of people were amazed or astonished about what they saw (καὶ ἐξίσταντο πάντες οἱ ὄχλοι). They wondered whether Jesus was the Son of David (καὶ ἔλεγον Μήτι οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ υἱὸς Δαυείδ). The historical son of David was Solomon who also had healing powers. “Son of David (υἱὸς Δαυείδ)” was also a royal or messianic name. Once again, the crowds or the “οἱ ὄχλοι” play a major role with Matthew.