Macedonians (2 Cor. 9:2)

“I know your eagerness,

This is the subject

Of my boasting

About you

To the people of Macedonia,

Saying that Achaia

Has been ready

Since last year.

Your zeal

Has stirred up

Most of them.”

οἶδα γὰρ τὴν προθυμίαν ὑμῶν ἣν ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν καυχῶμαι Μακεδόσιν ὅτι Ἀχαΐα παρεσκεύασται ἀπὸ πέρυσι, καὶ τὸ ὑμῶν ζῆλος ἠρέθισεν τοὺς πλείονας.

Paul said that I know (οἶδα) your eagerness (γὰρ τὴν προθυμίαν ὑμῶν) is the subject of my boasting (ὑμῶν καυχῶμαι) about you (ἣν ὑπὲρ) to the people of Macedonia (Μακεδόσιν), saying that Achaia (ὅτι Ἀχαΐα) has been ready (παρεσκεύασται) since last year (ἀπὸ πέρυσι).  Your zeal (καὶ τὸ ὑμῶν ζῆλος) has stirred up (ἠρέθισεν) most of them (τοὺς πλείονας).  Only the Pauline letters used this word καυχῶμαι, that means to boast, glory, or exult, and the word ἠρέθισεν, that means to stir up, provoke, or irritate.  Paul told the Corinthians how he was proud of them when he was talking to the northern Macedonians.  He told them that the people in Achaia, Corinth and the area around there, had been ready to make a collection for a year.  Paul told the Macedonians about their zeal, so that the Macedonians were stirred up to take a collection also.  Are you concerned about the generosity of other Christian churches?

Judas Maccabeus recalls the past aid to their ancestors (2 Macc 8:19-8:20)

“Moreover, Judas Maccabeus told them of the occasions when help came to their ancestors. There was once in the time of Sennacherib, when one hundred eighty-five thousand people perished. There was the time of the battle against the Galatians that took place in Babylonia, when eight thousand Jews fought along with four thousand Macedonians. When the Macedonians were hard pressed, the eight thousand, by the help that came to them from heaven, destroyed one hundred twenty thousand people. They took a great amount of booty.”

Judas Maccabeus recalled the great moments in Israelite battles. First there was the classic victory in 2 Kings, chapter 19, when King Hezekiah of Judah defeated and killed 185,000 troops of the Assyrian King Sennacherib, who was attacking Jerusalem around 700 BCE. This incident is often cited. However, the 2nd story about 8,000 Jews helping the Macedonians against the Galatians in Babylonia is only found here. Apparently the Galatians were mercenary troops in Asia. Apparently these Jewish troops helped King Antiochus III to defeat the Galatians in the time frame between 223-187 BCE. So that would have been only about a half-century earlier than Judas Maccabeus.

The importance of the Romans (1 Macc 8:1-8:11)

“Judas heard of the fame of the Romans since they were very strong. They were well-disposed toward all who made an alliance with them. They pledged friendship to those who came to them since they were very strong. He had been told of their wars and of the brave deeds which they were doing among the Gauls. They had defeated them and forced them to pay tribute. He learned what they had done in the land of Spain to get control of the silver and gold mines there. They had gained control of the whole region by their planning and patience, even though the place was far distant from them. They also subdued the kings who came against them from the ends of the earth, until they crushed them. They inflicted great disaster upon them. The rest paid them tribute every year. They had crushed in battle and conquered Philip, King Perseus of the Macedonians, and the others who rose up against them. They also had defeated King Antiochus the Great, king of Asia, who went to fight against them with one hundred twenty elephants, cavalry, chariots, and a very large army. He was crushed by them. They took him alive. They decreed that he and those who should rule after him should pay a heavy tribute, give hostages, and surrender some of their best provinces, the countries of India, Media, and Lydia. These they took from him and gave to King Eumenes. The Greeks planned to come and destroy them. However, this became known to them. Then they sent a general against the Greeks who attacked them. Many of them were wounded and fell. The Romans took captive their wives and children. They plundered them, conquered the land, tore down their strongholds, and enslaved them to this day. The remaining kingdoms and islands, as many as ever opposed them, they destroyed and enslaved.”

For some reason, the Romans made a big impression on Judas Maccabeus as they were beginning their ascendancy in the Mediterranean world. He knew that the Romans were strong and faithful in their alliances. Then this biblical author presented the great feats of the Romans. First they had conquered the Gauls and the Spaniards, these western territories around 190 BCE and the Punic wars with Carthage in North Africa from the 3rd century BCE. Prior to this time the only thing west was Egypt and Greece. Now Rome and the west made an impression. These Romans had gone and subdued kings from the ends of the earth. The Romans had defeated the last of the Macedonian kings, King Perseus in 168 BCE, the son of King Philip who had had been defeated in 179 BCE. Obviously this author had some sense of history. As noted, King Antiochus V was not killed, but had to give hostages to Rome, one of which was this King Demetrius I. However, he kept Medes, but did give up Lydia and other parts of Asia Minor. King Eumenes was a Cappadocian ruler. The Romans also defeated the Greeks. Although the Roman Empire did not come to its full height for a few centuries, it was well on its way in the 2nd century BCE.