Our daily bread
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δίδου ἡμῖν τὸ καθ’ ἡμέραν·
Luke indicated that Jesus said to the Father to give us (δίδου ἡμῖν) our daily bread (τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον) each day (τὸ καθ’ ἡμέραν). In the second part of the “Lord’s Prayer,” “The Our Father,” Matthew, chapter 6:11, and Luke, had 4 human petitions, perhaps indicating a common Q source. We should ask the Father to give us (δὸς ἡμῖν) our daily bread or sustenance to sustain our human life (Τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον) today (σήμερον). Every day, even today, we need our daily nutrition to live. The hope is that God the Father will provide for us. The Father will provide our daily nutritional needs, since we are dependant upon him. Do you thank God for your daily bread?
“Jesus said to them.
‘When you pray,
Your kingdom come!’”
εἶπεν δὲ αὐτοῖς Ὅταν προσεύχησθε, λέγετε Πάτερ, ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου· ἐλθάτω ἡ βασιλεία σου
Luke indicated that Jesus responded to his disciples (εἶπεν δὲ αὐτοῖς). He told them how to pray (Ὅταν προσεύχησθε). They were to say Father (λέγετε Πάτερ)! Hallowed or holy be your name (ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά)! Your kingdom come (σου· ἐλθάτω ἡ βασιλεία σου)! Matthew, chapter 6:9, also had the “Lord’s Prayer,” “The Our Father,” with slightly different variations, perhaps indicating a Q source. However, the text here in Luke is shorter than Matthew, since Matthew had 7 demands or requests of God, but Luke had only 5. The first part of the prayer was about the glory of God himself, the Father. Jesus simply tells them to pray this way. The Greek word for praying προσεύχεσθε means an exchange of wishes. Jesus opened this prayer with a call to their common “our” Father (Πάτερ ἡμῶν) who was in the heavens (ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς). Luke did not have “Our Father who was in heaven,” since that only appeared in the later Byzantine text of Luke, but simply “Father”. The heavenly father was a major theme throughout Matthew. His name should be holy (Ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου), just as in the Hebrew scriptures where the name of Yahweh was holy, especially Psalm 105:1-5. His kingdom should come (ἐλθάτω ἡ βασιλεία σου). Then Matthew had the unique statement about the will of the Father should be done (γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου) here on earth (καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς), just as it is done in heaven (ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ). Obviously following the will of God, Yahweh, was a common theme of Judaic life. The followers of Jesus would not be exempt from following the will of their heavenly Father. However, Luke did not mention this in his prayer to the Father, except that it was in the later Byzantine text also. Do you know the Lord’s prayer by heart?
“Jesus was praying
In a certain place.
After he had finished,
One of his disciples
Said to him.
As John taught
Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ εἶναι αὐτὸν ἐν τόπῳ τινὶ προσευχόμενον, ὡς ἐπαύσατο, εἶπέν τις τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ πρὸς αὐτόν Κύριε, δίδαξον ἡμᾶς προσεύχεσθαι, καθὼς καὶ Ἰωάνης ἐδίδαξεν τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ
Luke has this unique introduction to the Lord’s Prayer or the Our Father. Luke said that Jesus was praying (προσευχόμενον) in a certain place (Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ εἶναι αὐτὸν ἐν τόπῳ τινὶ). After he had finished or ceased praying (ὡς ἐπαύσατο), one of his disciples addressed him as ‘Lord’ (εἶπέν τις τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ πρὸς αὐτόν Κύριε). Could Jesus teach them how to pray (δίδαξον ἡμᾶς προσεύχεσθαι)? Afterall, John had taught his disciples to pray (καθὼς καὶ Ἰωάνης ἐδίδαξεν τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ). After Jesus had finished his usual praying, one of Jesus’ unnamed disciples wanted to know if the Lord could teach them to pray also, like John had done to his disciples. We do not have any prayers from John. Nevertheless, some or one of the disciples of Jesus may have been a disciple of John the Baptist, who had taught them how to pray. Once again, there is a connection with John the Baptist and his disciples and Jesus with his disciples. When did you learn to pray?
This second narrative centered around the Sermon on the Mount and the famous so-called Beatitudes. The first beatitude was about poverty, while the second beatitude was about mourning. The third beatitude was about the meek or the humble. The fourth beatitude was about righteousness. The fifth beatitude was on mercy, while the sixth beatitude was about the pure of heart. The seventh beatitude was on peacemakers, while the eighth beatitude was on persecution. There was a grand blessing for the persecuted Christians, who were the salt of the earth and the light of the world. They had to value and become the lighted lamp.
Next came the law and the prophets. The law with all its commandments remained. The righteous ones would not murder, nor would they get angry with insults. They would offer their gifts at the Temple. They would pay their debts and not commit adultery. Jesus warned against the sinning eye and the sinning right hand. He favored the traditional divorce stance, but warned about marrying a divorced woman. They should not bear false witness, nor swear at all, since they should have a simple speech. No longer was it an eye for an eye, but rather turn the other cheek with unusual kindness. They were to love their enemies and their heavenly Father with a perfect love.
The followers of Jesus should fast and pray. We should have piety with almsgiving. Our charity and prayer should be secret with short prayers. Thus, there was the famous “Our Father” prayer. The first part of the Lord’s prayer was about God the Father. The second part of the Lord’s prayer was about our human problems. We should seek forgiveness and fast in secret. We should not want earthly treasures, but heavenly treasures. We need to have a healthy eye because we cannot serve two masters.
We should trust in Providence. We do not need to worry. Just look at the birds who do not worry. The lilies of the field have more beauty than Solomon in all his glory. Seek the kingdom of heaven first and you will not have to worry about tomorrow.
As far as judgment was concerned, do not judge the speck in the eye of your neighbor. Be careful with your holy treasures. Be seekers and give to your sons. Pray to your heavenly Father and follow the golden rule. The gate was narrow and there were many false prophets. Know them by their fruits. The sound tree has good fruits. Cut down the bad tree. Seek the kingdom of heaven. Stay away from evildoers. Wise men build on a rock foundation, while the foolish ones build on a sand foundation. The crowds were astonished at the authority of Jesus.
“Pray then in this way!
Holy be your name!
Let your kingdom come!
Your will be done,
As it is in heaven.’”
οὕτως οὖν προσεύχεσθε ὑμεῖς Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς· Ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
ἐλθάτω ἡ βασιλεία σου· γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
Matthew, as well as Luke, chapter 11:2-3, both have the “Lord’s Prayer,” “The Our Father,” with only slightly different versions, perhaps indicating a Q source. The text in Luke is shorter than here, since Matthew has 7 demands of God, one of his favorite numbers. The first part of the prayer is about the glory of God himself, the Father. Jesus simply tells them to pray like this (οὕτως οὖν προσεύχεσθε ὑμεῖς). The Greek word for praying “προσεύχεσθε” means an exchange of wishes. Jesus opened this prayer with a call to their common “our” Father (Πάτερ ἡμῶν) who is in the heavens (ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς). The heavenly father was a major theme throughout Matthew. His name should be holy (Ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου), just as in the Hebrew scriptures where the name of Yahweh was holy, especially Psalm 105:1-5. His kingdom should come (ἐλθάτω ἡ βασιλεία σου). His will should be done (γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου) on earth (καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς), just as it is done in heaven (ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ). Obviously following the will of God, Yahweh, was a common theme of Judaic life. The followers of Jesus would not be exempt from following the will of their heavenly Father.