Five minas (Lk 19:18-19:18)

“Then the second slave

Came in.

He said.

‘Lord!

Your mina

Has made five minas.’”

 

καὶ ἦλθεν ὁ δεύτερος λέγων Ἡ μνᾶ σου, κύριε, ἐποίησεν πέντε μνᾶς.

 

Luke indicated that the second slave came in (καὶ ἦλθεν ὁ δεύτερος) and told this nobleman, his lord (λέγων Ἡ μνᾶ σου, κύριε), that he had bargained his one mina into 5 minas (ἐποίησεν πέντε μνᾶς).  This second slave had made 5 times more than what he had originally had.  There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 25:22, perhaps indicating a Q source.  However, in Matthew, the slave only doubled his investment.  Jesus said that the one who had received the 2 talents (προσελθὼν καὶ ὁ τὰ δύο τάλαντα) came forward.  He explained to his lord and master (εἶπεν Κύριε) that he had given him 2 talents (δύο τάλαντά μοι παρέδωκας), but now he had made, acquired, or gained 2 more talents (ἴδε ἄλλα δύο τάλαντα ἐκέρδησα).  He had doubled his talents as a wise trader.  Are you wise with your money?

Authority over ten cities (Lk 19:17-19:17)

“The nobleman

Said to the first slave.

‘Well done!

Good slave!

Because you have been

Trustworthy

In a very small thing,

Take charge

Of ten cities!’”

 

καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Εὖγε, ἀγαθὲ δοῦλε, ὅτι ἐν ἐλαχίστῳ πιστὸς ἐγένου, ἴσθι ἐξουσίαν ἔχων ἐπάνω δέκα πόλεων.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that the nobleman told the first slave (καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ) that he had done well as a good slave (Εὖγε, ἀγαθὲ δοῦλε).  He had been trustworthy in a very small thing (ὅτι ἐν ἐλαχίστῳ πιστὸς ἐγένου), he was now going to be put in charge of 10 cities (ἴσθι ἐξουσίαν ἔχων ἐπάνω δέκα πόλεων).  There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 25:21, perhaps indicating a Q source.  Jesus said that this master or lord said to this diligent trader slave (ἔφη αὐτῷ ὁ κύριος αὐτοῦ) that he done a good job (Εὖ).  He was a good trustworthy slave (δοῦλε ἀγαθὲ καὶ πιστέ).  As he had been trustworthy or faithful in a few things (ἐπὶ ὀλίγα ἦς πιστός), this master was going to put him in charge or appoint him over many things (ἐπὶ πολλῶν σε καταστήσω), without being specific.  This first slave was to enter into the joy of his master or lord (εἴσελθε εἰς τὴν χαρὰν τοῦ κυρίου σου).  This idea of being in the presence of his master was similar to the idea of being in the presence of God.  However, Luke had a more specific earthly reward.  Have you ever received a reward for some work that you did?

Ten times as much (Lk 19:16-19:16)

“The first slave

Came forward.

He said.

‘Lord!

Your mina

Has produced

Ten more minas.’”

 

παρεγένετο δὲ ὁ πρῶτος λέγων Κύριε, ἡ μνᾶ σου δέκα προσηργάσατο μνᾶς.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that the first slave came forward (παρεγένετο δὲ ὁ πρῶτος) and said to the nobleman lord (λέγων Κύριε), that he turned his original mina into 10 more minas (ἡ μνᾶ σου δέκα προσηργάσατο μνᾶς).  Once again, this is the only Greek biblical use of the word προσηργάσατο, that means to work or gain besides, or produce in addition.  This nobleman’s original investment had made 10 times more than what he had originally.  This first slave had turned his one mina into 10 minas.  Matthew, chapter 25:20, had something similar, as if a Q source.  In Matthew, the first slave only doubled his investment.  Jesus said that the one slave who had received the five talents (καὶ προσελθὼν ὁ τὰ πέντε τάλαντα λαβὼν) came forward with 5 more talents (προσήνεγκεν ἄλλα πέντε τάλαντα).  He explained to his lord and master (λέγων Κύριε) that he had been given 5 talents (πέντε τάλαντά μοι παρέδωκας), but now he had made, acquired, or gained 5 more talents (ἴδε ἄλλα πέντε τάλαντα ἐκέρδησα).  He had doubled his investment as a wise trader.  However, Luke’s trader had a higher rate of return with less money.  Have you ever traded money in investments?

The results of trading (Lk 19:15-19:15)

“This nobleman

Received royal power.

When he returned,

He ordered those slaves,

To whom

He had given the money,

To be summoned.

Thus,

He might find out

What they had gained

By trading.”

 

καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ ἐπανελθεῖν αὐτὸν λαβόντα τὴν βασιλείαν καὶ εἶπεν φωνηθῆναι αὐτῷ τοὺς δούλους τούτους οἷς δεδώκει τὸ ἀργύριον, ἵνα γνοῖ τίς τί διεπραγματεύσατο.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that this nobleman did receive his royal power (καὶ ἐγένετο…αὐτὸν λαβόντα τὴν βασιλείαν) and then he returned home (ἐν τῷ ἐπανελθεῖν).  Once again, only Luke used this term ἐπανελθεῖν that means to return or come back again.  This nobleman ordered those 10 slaves, to whom he had given the money, to be summoned to him (καὶ εἶπεν φωνηθῆναι αὐτῷ τοὺς δούλους τούτους οἷς δεδώκει τὸ ἀργύριον).  He wanted to find out what they had gained by trading (ἵνα γνοῖ τίς τί διεπραγματεύσατο).  Sure enough, this is the only use of the word διεπραγματεύσατο, in all the Greek biblical literature that means to examine thoroughly, to gain by trading, or doing business.  There is an equivalent in Matthew, chapter 25:19, perhaps indicating a Q source.  Jesus said that after a long time (μετὰ δὲ πολὺν χρόνον), the master or lord of these slaves came back (ἔρχεται ὁ κύριος τῶν δούλων ἐκείνων).  He then wanted to settle his accounts with his slaves (καὶ συναίρει λόγον μετ’ αὐτῶν).  Luke had the more colorful language to explain the returning rich man who wanted to see how his slaves had done in their business dealings.  Have you ever traded stocks or other assets to make money?

Zacchaeus defends himself (Lk 19:8-19:8)

“Zacchaeus stood there.

He said

To the Lord.

‘Look!

Lord!

I will give

To the poor

Half of my possessions.

If I have defrauded

Anyone of anything,

I will pay back

Four times as much.’”

 

σταθεὶς δὲ Ζακχαῖος εἶπεν πρὸς τὸν Κύριον Ἰδοὺ τὰ ἡμίσειά μου τῶν ὑπαρχόντων, Κύριε, τοῖς πτωχοῖς δίδωμι, καὶ εἴ τινός τι ἐσυκοφάντησα ἀποδίδωμι τετραπλοῦν.

 

Luke indicated that Zacchaeus stood there (σταθεὶς δὲ Ζακχαῖος).  He then said to the Lord Jesus (εἶπεν πρὸς τὸν Κύριον), calling him Lord (Κύριε) that he was willing to give to the poor (τοῖς πτωχοῖς δίδωμι) half of his possessions (Ἰδοὺ τὰ ἡμίσειά μου τῶν ὑπαρχόντων).  He said that if he had defrauded anyone of anything (καὶ εἴ τινός τι ἐσυκοφάντησα), he was willing to pay it back 4 times as much (ἀποδίδωμι τετραπλοῦν).  Once again, Luke used the Greek word ἐσυκοφάντησα, that means to accuse falsely or defraud people, that was not found in any of the other Greek biblical writers.  Zacchaeus made a big deal about how he was not like the other tax collectors.  Despite his wealth, he was willing to give half of it away to some unnamed poor people.  Anytime, he was accused of defrauding people, he would give them 4 times what they were claiming.  This restoration of 4 times goes back to Exodus, chapter 22:1, about stealing sheep.  The thief had to pay four sheep for any one stolen sheep.  Thus, Zacchaeus seemed like a very fair person, leaning over backwards to help people.  Yet he was still wealthy.  Luke was the only synoptic with this story of Zacchaeus.  How do you treat people who claim that you are defrauding them?

The dialogue with the blind beggar (Lk 18:40-18:41)

“When he came near,

Jesus asked him.

‘What do you want me

To do for you?’

He said.

‘Lord!

Let me see again!’”

 

ἐγγίσαντος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἐπηρώτησεν αὐτόν

Τί σοι θέλεις ποιήσω; ὁ δὲ εἶπεν Κύριε, ἵνα ἀναβλέψω.

 

Luke indicated that when the blind beggar came near to Jesus (ἐγγίσαντος δὲ αὐτοῦ), he asked him (ἐπηρώτησεν αὐτόν) what he wanted Jesus to do for him (Τί σοι θέλεις ποιήσω).  The blind beggar replied (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν), calling Jesus the Lord (Κύριε), that he wanted to see again (ἵνα ἀναβλέψω).  Both Mark, chapter 10:51, and Matthew, chapter 20:32-33, are similar.  Mark indicated that Jesus responded to Bartimaeus (καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς).  He wanted to know what he wished that Jesus could do for him (εἶπεν Τί θέλεις ποιήσω).  The blind Bartimaeus replied to Jesus (ὁ δὲ τυφλὸς εἶπεν αὐτῷ) by addressing him as Rabbi or master teacher (Ῥαββουνεί).  He wanted to see again, to regain his sight (ἵνα ἀναβλέψω).  This did not seem that unusual.  Matthew said that Jesus called (ἐφώνησεν αὐτοὺς) the two blind men.  He wanted to know what they wanted him to do for them (καὶ εἶπεν Τί θέλετε ποιήσω ὑμῖν).  They then called Jesus Lord (λέγουσιν αὐτῷ Κύριε).  They wanted their eyes opened (ἵνα ἀνοιγῶσιν οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ ἡμῶν) so that they could see.  In all three synoptics, the blind man or men wanted to see again, a simple request.  Do you want to see better?

Have mercy on me! (Lk 18:39-18:39)

“Those who were

In front

Sternly ordered him

To be quiet.

But he shouted out

More loudly.

‘Son of David!

Have mercy on me!’”

 

καὶ οἱ προάγοντες ἐπετίμων αὐτῷ ἵνα σιγήσῃ· αὐτὸς δὲ πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἔκραζεν Υἱὲ Δαυείδ, ἐλέησόν με.

 

Luke indicated that those who were in front of the crowd (καὶ οἱ προάγοντες) sternly ordered the blind beggar (ἐπετίμων αὐτῷ) to be quiet (ἵνα σιγήσῃ).  Instead, he shouted out more loudly (αὐτὸς δὲ πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἔκραζεν) the same message “Son of David (Υἱὲ Δαυείδ)!  Have mercy on me (ἐλέησόν με)!”  Both Mark, chapter 10:48, and Matthew, chapter 20:31, have something similar.  Mark said that many in the crowd rebuked, admonished, or ordered Bartimaeus to be quiet or silent (καὶ ἐπετίμων αὐτῷ πολλοὶ ἵνα σιωπήσῃ).  But he shouted out even more loudly (ὁ δὲ πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἔκραζεν).  He repeated again what he had shouted out earlier.  He called Jesus, the Son of David (Υἱὲ Δαυείδ).  He wanted Jesus to have mercy on him. (ἐλέησόν με).  Matthew said that the crowd rebuked or admonished these two blind beggars to be quiet or silent (ὁ δὲ ὄχλος ἐπετίμησεν αὐτοῖς ἵνα σιωπήσωσιν).  But they shouted out even more loudly (οἱ δὲ μεῖζον ἔκραξαν λέγοντες).  They repeated again what they had shouted out earlier.  They called Jesus, Lord, the Son of David (Κύριε, υἱὸς Δαυείδ).  They wanted him to have mercy on them (ἐλέησον ἡμᾶς).  This Greek cry of “Κύριε, ἐλέησον” “kyrie eleison,” would become a Christian cry for mercy that has found its way into the Roman Catholic Liturgy of the Word at the beginning of the regular Sunday Mass service, with the “Lord, have mercy!”  Quite often, it is also part of a chant.  Do you ask Jesus, the Lord, to have mercy on you?

 

The unrighteous judge (Lk 18:6-8:6)

“The Lord said.

‘Listen

To what

the unjust says!’”

 

Εἶπεν δὲ ὁ Κύριος Ἀκούσατε τί ὁ κριτὴς τῆς ἀδικίας λέγει·

 

Luke is the only synoptic writer with this parable about the widow and the bad judge.  Luke indicated that the Lord Jesus said to them (Εἶπεν δὲ ὁ Κύριος) that they were to listen (Ἀκούσατε) to what this unjust judge just said (τί ὁ κριτὴς τῆς ἀδικίας λέγει).  Despite being unjust (ἀδικίας), Jesus wanted his disciples to listen to what he had to say.  If this callous unjust judge granted justice to this persistent widow, what do you think that a wonderful caring just God would do for them with their persistent pleadings and prayers?  Notice that Luke now called Jesus Lord (ὁ Κύριος).  Do you think that bad unjust people can do some good deeds once in a while?

The eagles will be gathered (Lk 17:37-17:37)

“Then they asked Jesus.

‘Where?

Lord!’

He said to them,

‘Where the corpse is,

There the vultures

Will gather.’”

 

καὶ ἀποκριθέντες λέγουσιν αὐτῷ Ποῦ, Κύριε; ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Ὅπου τὸ σῶμα, ἐκεῖ καὶ οἱ ἀετοὶ ἐπισυναχθήσονται.

 

Luke indicated that they asked Jesus (καὶ ἀποκριθέντες λέγουσιν αὐτῷ), addressing him as Lord (Κύριε), where was this going to happen (Ποῦ)?  Jesus said to them (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς) that where the body or the corpse was (Ὅπου τὸ σῶμα), there the vultures would gather (ἐκεῖ καὶ οἱ ἀετοὶ ἐπισυναχθήσονται).  This was something similar in Matthew, chapter 24:28, perhaps indicating a Q source.  However, this saying was after the comment about the Son of Man coming like lightning.  Jesus, via Matthew, said that wherever the corpse was (ὅπου ἐὰν ᾖ τὸ πτῶμα), there the vultures would gather (ἐκεῖ συναχθήσονται οἱ ἀετοί).  The vultures or eagles were a reference to the Roman soldiers with their eagle symbols.  Thus, Luke ended the remarks of Jesus about the end times.  Are you comfortable talking about the end of the world?

Have mercy! (Lk 17:13-17:13)

“The lepers

Called out,

Saying.

‘Jesus!

Master!

Have mercy

On us!’”

 

καὶ αὐτοὶ ἦραν φωνὴν λέγοντες Ἰησοῦ Ἐπιστάτα, ἐλέησον ἡμᾶς

 

Only Luke has this story about the curing of the ten lepers.  Luke indicated that the lepers cried out (καὶ αὐτοὶ ἦραν φωνὴν λέγοντες), calling Jesus “Master! (Ἰησοῦ Ἐπιστάτα)”.  They wanted him to have mercy on them (ἐλέησον ἡμᾶς).  This was a common approach to Jesus.  They wanted mercy or compassion.  They called Jesus their master, as if they were slaves.  Luke alone, among the biblical writers, used this term Ἐπιστάτα, that means master, teacher, chief, or commander, 7 times in this gospel.  However, they did not call him “Lord”.  What is your favorite title for Jesus?