Luke indicated that Jesus said to be on guard or aware (Προσέχετε δὲ ἑαυτοῖς), so that their hearts should not be weighed down (μή ποτε βαρηθῶσιν ὑμῶν αἱ καρδίαι) with dissipation (ἐν κραιπάλῃ), drunkenness (καὶ μέθῃ), and the daily worries of this life (καὶ μερίμναις βιωτικαῖς). Luke was the only Greek biblical writer to use this term κραιπάλῃ, that means drunken nausea or drunken dissipation. Thus, the day of the end times would not suddenly catch you unexpectedly (καὶ ἐπιστῇ ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς αἰφνίδιος ἡ ἡμέρα ἐκείνη). There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 24:43 and Mark, chapter 13:35. Mark indicated that Jesus said that they were to be aware (Βλέπετε) and alert all the time (ἀγρυπνεῖτε), because they did not know (οὐκ οἴδατε) when the end times (γὰρ πότε ὁ καιρός ἐστιν) would come. Luke, chapter 12:39-40, also had something similar about the thief at night. Jesus warned his disciples to be vigilant. They were to stay awake (γρηγορεῖτε οὖν), because they did not know on what day (ὅτι οὐκ οἴδατε ποίᾳ ἡμέρᾳ) the Lord was coming (ὁ κύριος ὑμῶν ἔρχεται). Therefore, they had to be ready or prepared (διὰ τοῦτο καὶ ὑμεῖς γίνεσθε ἕτοιμοι) for the coming of the Son of Man (ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἔρχεται) because he would be coming at an unexpected hour (ὅτι ᾗ οὐ δοκεῖτε ὥρᾳ). This is also similar to the parable ending in Matthew, chapter 25:13, about the virgins at the wedding being vigilant. This was a simple message to be vigilant all the time, because your end or the end of the world could happen at any time. Are you ready to go?
Luke had Jesus continue by saying that David himself said that (αὐτὸς γὰρ Δαυεὶδ λέγει) in the Book of Psalms (ἐν βίβλῳ ψαλμῶν) that the Lord said to my Lord (Εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου) to sit at my right hand (Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου). Here is an explicit reference to the Book of the Psalms with the assumption that King David (1000 BCE) had written this psalm. Thus, citing Psalm 110 was like citing David himself. There was something similar in Matthew, chapter 22:43-44, and Mark, chapter 12:36. Mark used Psalm 110:1 as the basis of this question about David and the Messiah Christ. Mark indicated that Jesus said that David himself (αὐτὸς Δαυεὶδ εἶπεν), inspired by the Holy Spirit (ἐν τῷ Πνεύματι τῷ Ἁγίῳ), spoke about the “Lord (Κύριος).” In Psalm 110:1, David said that the Lord said to his Lord to sit at his right hand (Εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου). Matthew indicated that Jesus asked them what did David mean when, inspired by the Spirit, he called the future Messiah, a son of David, “Lord” (Πῶς οὖν Δαυεὶδ ἐν Πνεύματι καλεῖ αὐτὸν Κύριον λέγω). Jesus then cited Psalm 110:1, where David said that the Lord said to his Lord to sit at his right hand (Εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου). Thus, there was an attempt to give Davidic authority to this biblical saying. Do you like the psalms?
Luke indicated that Jesus justified the resurrection, that the dead are raised up (ὅτι δὲ ἐγείρονται οἱ νεκροὶ). Jesus used the example of Moses at the thorn bush (καὶ Μωϋσῆς ἐμήνυσεν ἐπὶ τῆς Βάτου), when he called Yahweh or the Lord (ὡς λέγει Κύριον) the God of Abraham (τὸν Θεὸν Ἀβραὰμ), the God of Isaac (καὶ Θεὸν Ἰσαὰκ), and the God of Jacob (καὶ Θεὸν Ἰακώβ). Jesus continued with this same explanation that can also be found in Matthew, chapter 22:31-32, and Mark, chapter 12:26. They all refer to Moses at the burning bush in Exodus, chapter 3:6, a mysterious theophany, that is implied without being explicitly mentioned here. Mark indicated that Jesus said that the dead will rise up (περὶ δὲ τῶν νεκρῶν ὅτι ἐγείρονται). Jesus then reminded the Sadducees that they had not read the correct book of Moses (οὐκ ἀνέγνωτε ἐν τῇ βίβλῳ Μωϋσέως). Jesus then referenced this saying of Yahweh to Moses at the bush (ἐπὶ τοῦ Βάτου). Yahweh God spoke to Moses saying (πῶς εἶπεν αὐτῷ λέγων) that he was the God of Abraham (Ἐγώ ὁ Θεὸς Ἀβραὰμ), the God of Isaac (καὶ Θεὸς Ἰσαὰκ), and the God of Jacob (καὶ Θεὸς Ἰακώβ). Matthew indicated that Jesus reminded the Sadducees that they had not read the correct sayings of God (οὐκ ἀνέγνωτε τὸ ῥηθὲν ὑμῖν ὑπὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ λέγοντος), concerning the resurrection of the dead (περὶ δὲ τῆς ἀναστάσεως τῶν νεκρῶν). He did not say “the correct book” as in Mark. He then referenced the saying of Yahweh to Moses at the burning bush, that he was the God of Abraham (Ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ Θεὸς Ἀβραὰμ), the God of Isaac (καὶ ὁ Θεὸς Ἰσαὰκ), and the God of Jacob (καὶ ὁ Θεὸς Ἰακώβ). Do you believe in your resurrection in the afterlife?
Luke indicated that Jesus looked at them (ὁ δὲ ἐμβλέψας αὐτοῖς). He asked (εἶπεν) what this written biblical text meant (Τί οὖν ἐστιν τὸ γεγραμμένον τοῦτο)? He then quoted Psalm 118, 22 that the very stone that the builders had rejected (Λίθον ὃν ἀπεδοκίμασαν οἱ οἰκοδομοῦντες) has become the chief headstone or the cornerstone (οὗτος ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας) of the building. This citation of Psalm 118:22-23 can also be found in Matthew, chapter 21:42, and in Mark, chapter 12:10-11, but in a longer version. Mark said that Jesus asked them if they had not read the scriptures (οὐδὲ τὴν γραφὴν ταύτην ἀνέγνωτε) especially Psalm 118, that was also part of the Hallel prayer. Then Jesus quoted a few verses of this psalm about the stone that the builders had rejected (Λίθον ὃν ἀπεδοκίμασαν οἱ οἰκοδομοῦντες), because they probably thought that it was inferior. Now, that very stone has become the cornerstone or key head stone (οὗτος ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας) of that building. Then he added that this was the work of the Lord (παρὰ Κυρίου ἐγένετο αὕτη) that was amazing and marvelous to everyone’s eyes (καὶ ἔστιν θαυμαστὴ ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖς ἡμῶν). Matthew indicated that Jesus asked them (Λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς) if they had read the scriptures (Οὐδέποτε ἀνέγνωτε ἐν ταῖς γραφαῖς)? Then Jesus quoted a few verses of this Psalm 118: 22-23, the same as Mark, with a line more than Luke, about the stone that the builders had rejected (Οὐδέποτε ἀνέγνωτε ἐν ταῖς γραφαῖς), because they probably thought that it was inferior. Now, that very stone has become the cornerstone or key head stone (οὗτος ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας) of that building. This was the work of the Lord (παρὰ Κυρίου ἐγένετο αὕτη) that was amazing and marvelous to everyone’s eyes (καὶ ἔστιν θαυμαστὴ ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖς ἡμῶν). The rejected cornerstone was a hint at Jesus’s own rejection by the Jewish leaders that would be a big mistake. Have you ever misjudged the value of a person?
Luke indicated that Jesus said that the vineyard owner would come (ἐλεύσεται) and destroy these farmer tenants (καὶ ἀπολέσει τοὺς γεωργοὺς τούτους). He would give this vineyard to others (καὶ δώσει τὸν ἀμπελῶνα ἄλλοις). When they heard this (ἀκούσαντες), they said (δὲ εἶπαν) “May it never happen (Μὴ γένοιτο)!” The end of this parable of the wicked vineyard tenants can also be found in Matthew, chapter 21:40-41, and Mark, chapter 12:9. Mark indicated that Jesus continued with his story by asking a question. What will the lord or the owner of that vineyard do (τί ποιήσει ὁ κύριος τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος)? Jesus responded to his own question that this landowner would come and destroy these evil tenants (ἐλεύσεται καὶ ἀπολέσει τοὺς γεωργούς). Then he would lease out or rent the vineyard to other tenants (καὶ δώσει τὸν ἀμπελῶνα ἄλλοις). Matthew also had Jesus continue with his story by asking a question. When the lord or the owner of that vineyard came to his vineyard (ὅταν οὖν ἔλθῃ ὁ κύριος τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος), what would he do to those wicked tenants (τί ποιήσει τοῖς γεωργοῖς ἐκείνοις)? The apostles, and not Jesus himself, responded to Jesus (λέγουσιν αὐτῷ) by saying that this landowner would put those evil wretches to a miserable death (Κακοὺς κακῶς ἀπολέσει αὐτούς). Then he would lease out or rent the vineyard to other tenants (καὶ τὸν ἀμπελῶνα ἐκδώσεται ἄλλοις γεωργοῖς), who would give him the produce at the harvest time (οἵτινες ἀποδώσουσιν αὐτῷ τοὺς καρποὺς ἐν τοῖς καιροῖς αὐτῶν). This land owner was still looking for good tenants or renters. In Mark and Matthew, there was nothing about people saying “May it never happen!” Would you be a good tenant farmer?
Luke indicated that Jesus said that these farmer tenants threw the beloved son of the vineyard owner out of the vineyard (καὶ ἐκβαλόντες αὐτὸν ἔξω τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος). They killed him (ἀπέκτειναν). What do you think that the lord or owner of the vineyard was going to do to them (τί οὖν ποιήσει αὐτοῖς ὁ κύριος τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος)? This parable of the killing of the landowner’s son can be found in Matthew, chapter 21:39, and Mark, chapter 12:8, almost word for word. Mark indicated that Jesus continued with this story. Thus, these wicked tenants seized the owner’s son (καὶ λαβόντες) and killed him (ἀπέκτειναν αὐτόν). Finally, they threw him out or cast him out of the vineyard (καὶ ἐξέβαλον αὐτὸν ἔξω τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος). Both Luke and Matthew had him thrown out before he was killed, but Mark said that they killed him and then threw him out. Matthew indicated that Jesus said that these wicked tenants seized the son (καὶ λαβόντες αὐτὸν) of the vineyard owner and cast him out of the vineyard (ἐξέβαλον ἔξω τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος), where they killed him (καὶ ἀπέκτειναν). The meaning of this parable was becoming clearer. The landowner was God the Father. The vineyard was Israel. The tenants were the Jewish religious leaders. The slaves were the Israelite prophets. Jesus was the beloved son of the Father. He was killed either outside of Jerusalem, the vineyard, or thrown out after his death. Clearly, Jesus would not have to explain this parable to his disciples and apostles. Did you get the meaning of this story?
Luke indicated that Jesus remarked that the owner, lord, or master of the vineyard (ὁ κύριος τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος) wondered (εἶπεν) what should he do (Τί ποιήσω). Finally, he decided to send his beloved son (πέμψω τὸν υἱόν μου τὸν ἀγαπητόν). He thought that perhaps, they would respect him (ἴσως τοῦτον ἐντραπήσονται). The sending of the beloved son of the landowner in this parable can also be found in Matthew, chapter 21:37, and Mark, chapter 12:6, almost word for word. Mark said that this landowner had his own beloved son (ἔτι ἕνα εἶχεν, υἱὸν ἀγαπητόν). Finally, he was going to send him to these wicked tenants (ἀπέστειλεν αὐτὸν ἔσχατον πρὸς αὐτοὺς). He said (λέγων) to himself that they would respect his son (ὅτι Ἐντραπήσονται τὸν υἱόν μου). Matthew indicated that Jesus said that this landowner sent his own son to these wicked tenants (ὕστερον δὲ ἀπέστειλεν πρὸς αὐτοὺς τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ). He said to himself that they would respect his son (Ἐντραπήσονται τὸν υἱόν μου). Notice that he was not “beloved” in Matthew. This story or parable was becoming clearer now. Would you send your son on a dangerous errand?
Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus remarked that the bystanders said to the nobleman (καὶ εἶπαν αὐτῷ), lord (Κύριε), that he already had 10 minas (ἔχει δέκα μνᾶς). Luke seemed to understand this problem of fairness and equality, but there was no complaint in Matthew. Is it fair to give more to people who already have a lot?
Luke indicated that Jesus said that this third slave said that he was afraid (ἐφοβούμην) of the lord nobleman, because this nobleman was a harsh or severe man (γάρ σε, ὅτι ἄνθρωπος αὐστηρὸς εἶ). Once again, Luke used a word αὐστηρὸς, that means harsh, severe, grim, strict, exacting, or rigid, that is not found elsewhere in the Greek biblical literature. This man took what he had not deposited (αἴρεις ὃ οὐκ ἔθηκας). He reaped what he had not sown (καὶ θερίζεις ὃ οὐκ ἔσπειρας). This was similar to Matthew, chapter 25:24, perhaps indicating a Q source. Jesus, via Matthew, indicated that this slave said to his master or lord (εἶπεν Κύριε) that he knew that his master was a harsh or hard man (ἔγνων σε ὅτι σκληρὸς εἶ ἄνθρωπος), because he would reap or harvest crops where he had not sown them (θερίζων ὅπου οὐκ ἔσπειρας). He even gathered crops where he had not scattered seeds (καὶ συνάγων ὅθεν οὐ διεσκόρπισας). This third slave in each story was afraid of this harsh or severe demanding master. Do you know someone who is very demanding?
Luke indicated that Jesus said that another slave came in (καὶ ὁ ἕτερος ἦλθεν) and said to this lord, nobleman (λέγων Κύριε), that he had saved his mina (ἰδοὺ ἡ μνᾶ σου). He had wrapped it up in a piece of cloth, a handkerchief or a napkin (ἣν εἶχον ἀποκειμένην ἐν σουδαρίῳ). Instead of trading with this money, he simply wrapped it up to keep it safe. There was something similar in Matthew, chapter 25:25, perhaps indicating a Q source. Unlike the first 2 slaves, this third slave did something else with his one talent. Jesus said this slave who had received one talent came forward to his master (προσελθὼν δὲ καὶ ὁ τὸ ἓν τάλαντον εἰληφὼς). However, this slave said that he was afraid (καὶ φοβηθεὶς), so he went and hid his talent in the ground (ἀπελθὼν ἔκρυψα τὸ τάλαντόν σου ἐν τῇ γῇ). Then he seemed happy to return this one talent back to his master. He said “Look! here it is (ἴδε ἔχεις τὸ σόν)!” He was glad to be rid of this burden of protecting this money from possible thieves or robbers. Sometimes people are too cautious, as they fear that they will lose something, as here in this parable story. Are you too cautious with your money?