“As soon as it was morning,
The chief priests
Held a consultation
With the elders,
And the whole council.
They bound Jesus.
They led him away.
They handed him
Over to Pilate.”
Καὶ εὐθὺς πρωῒ συμβούλιον ἑτοιμάσαντες οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς μετὰ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων καὶ γραμματέων καὶ ὅλον τὸ συνέδριον, δήσαντες τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἀπήνεγκαν καὶ παρέδωκαν Πειλάτῳ
This is similar to Matthew, chapter 27:1-2, except that Mark did not mention the decision to bring Jesus to death. In Luke, chapter 23:1, everybody brought Jesus to Pilate. In John, chapter 18:28, there was a long discussion of Pilate with the Jewish leaders, after they brought Jesus to Pilate. However, they had to stay outside the Roman court, so as not to defile themselves during the Passover festival. Mark said that as soon as it was early in the morning (Καὶ εὐθὺς πρωῒ), after the all-nighter evening meeting at the house of the high priest of Jerusalem, the chief priests (οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς) with the elders or presbyters (μετὰ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων) and the Scribes (καὶ γραμματέων) conferred together or came to a resolution (συμβούλιον ἑτοιμάσαντες). All of this council, tribunal, or Sanhedrin (καὶ ὅλον τὸ συνέδριον) agreed. They tied up or bound Jesus (δήσαντες τὸν Ἰησοῦν). They led him away (ἀπήγαγον). They delivered him or handed him over to Pilate (καὶ παρέδωκαν Πειλάτῳ). Whether this was an official meeting or not, they did come up with a conclusion that they would hand Jesus over to the Roman governor of Judea. Thus, Pilate had jurisdiction over death penalties, since Judea was within the Roman Empire. Mark did not mention that Pilate was the governor, but this text just assumes that. Who was this Pontius Pilate? He was the rather cruel Roman ruler, prefect, or governor of Judea from 26-36 CE, the exact time frame of Jesus. Interesting enough, a whole literature and artistic presentations of Pontius Pilate developed in the 20th century with movie and TV portrayals of him. He was certainly a central figure in this presentation about the death of Jesus.
“They bound Jesus.
They led him away.
They delivered him
καὶ δήσαντες αὐτὸν ἀπήγαγον καὶ παρέδωκαν Πειλάτῳ τῷ ἡγεμόνι.
This is almost word for word in Mark, chapter 15:1, except there was no mention that Pilate was the governor, but just assumes that. In Luke, chapter 23:1, there is just the simple statement that they brought Jesus to Pilate. In John, chapter 18:28-32, there was a long discussion of Pilate with the Jewish leaders. Who is this Pontius Pilate? He was the rather cruel Roman ruler, prefect, or governor of Judea from 26-36 CE, the exact time frame of Jesus. These chief priests and elders of the people tied up Jesus (καὶ δήσαντες αὐτὸν). They led him away and delivered him to Pilate (ἀπήγαγον καὶ παρέδωκαν Πειλάτῳ), the Roman governor (τῷ ἡγεμόνι) of Judea who had jurisdiction over death penalties in the Judean territory, since Judea was within the Roman Empire. Interesting enough, a whole literature and artistic presentation of Pontius Pilate developed in 20th century with movie and TV portrayals of him. He was certainly a central figure in this Passion of Jesus presentation.
Once John baptized Jesus, according to all three synoptic gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, Jesus fasted for 40 days and 40 nights in the Judaean desert. After this fast, the devil, the tempter, or Satan appeared to Jesus trying to test or tempt him. Jesus refused each of the 3 human temptations concerning the hedonism of hunger, the egotism of power, and the materialism of wealth. These temptations were to mislead and pervert the thinking, wishing, and feeling of Jesus. Although Mark‘s account was very brief, Matthew and Luke described the temptations in great detail that may have come from their common Q source. Is this a parable? What was the purpose of these accounts? There is no doubt that Matthew used language from the Old Testament Septuagint with a series of quotations from Deuteronomy. Fasting was a preparation for a great spiritual struggle. Once the temptations were over, Satan departed. Then angels of God began looking after Jesus. These temptations of Jesus have had many portrayals in art, literature, film, and music, since they have captured the imagination of many of the followers of Jesus Christ
There are material dimensions to our life. We are flesh, not just a spiritual soul. We know about physical beauty and wealth. If you are wealthy and the right race, does that prove that God loves you? In reality, the physical world is morally neutral and can be an asset or a liability. A disability can lead either to self-pity or courage. Sex can either be an act of love or manipulation. Wealth can be a power to help others or a path to greed. We have to accept ourselves and who we are. Thus, we have to let God shine through us. We must bring our senses of touch, smell, and hearing into our faith. We have to appreciate the beauty in the world around us. Christians believe in an incarnation theology. Jesus was truly in this world. Do not fear the body, imagination or the aesthetic sense. Your imagination uses myths and images to help you describe God, whether it be in music, art, or literature.
There were different literary forms that came under the various cultural human influences. Literary criticism means the various applications that people have used to investigate any kind of literature. The study of the use of language and style to obtain meaning has helped to reestablish the unity, the beauty, the integrity, the quality, and the meaning and significance of biblical literature. Many subcategories of literary criticism also exist. An examination of the use of language and literary style shows how these human authors established their meanings. The formal scientific study of human language involves the application of some aspects of modern linguistics. Structuralism is an attempt to discover underlying deep patterns of universal meaning and significance.