“Four more were
The son of Alphaeus,
Who was called the Zealot.”
καὶ Μαθθαῖον καὶ Θωμᾶν, καὶ Ἰάκωβον Ἀλφαίου καὶ Σίμωνα τὸν καλούμενον Ζηλωτὴν,
This section about naming the 12 apostles is similar to Matthew, chapter 10:3-4, and Mark, chapter 3:18. This list can also be compared to the list in the Acts of the Apostles, chapter 1:13. Matthew (καὶ Μαθθαῖον), or Levi, the tax collector, and doubting Thomas (καὶ Θωμᾶν) in John, chapter 20:19-29, are mentioned elsewhere in the gospels. However, the other 2 apostles are not mentioned by name elsewhere in the gospels, James, the son of Alphaeus (καὶ Ἰάκωβον Ἀλφαίου), and Simon the Zealot (καὶ Σίμωνα τὸν καλούμενον Ζηλωτὴν). Both of these men have some confusing comments about them in the other listings of the apostles. In Mark 2:14, Levi or Matthew was called the son of Alphaeus just as James is here. However, in the list of Mark, chapter 3:18, he also called James, the son of Alphaeus as here. Were they brothers? Mark also called this Simon the Cananaean. Either this Simon was a Jewish zealot or a Cananaean. Besides Simon, the leader called Peter, there was a mention of a Simon who was a leper and Pharisee Simon. So that there were a lot of Simons in the gospel stories.
Whom he named Peter,
And his brother
Σίμωνα, ὃν καὶ ὠνόμασεν, Πέτρον καὶ Ἀνδρέαν τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ, καὶ Ἰάκωβον καὶ Ἰωάνην, καὶ Φίλιππον καὶ Βαρθολομαῖον,
Luke then gave a list of these 12 apostles. The first six named were Simon (Σίμωνα), whom he renamed Peter (ὃν καὶ ὠνόμασεν, Πέτρον), his brother Andrew (καὶ Ἀνδρέαν τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ), as well as James (καὶ Ἰάκωβον), John (καὶ Ἰωάνην), Philip (καὶ Φίλιππον), and Bartholomew (καὶ Βαρθολομαῖον). This section about the names of the 12 apostles is similar to Mark, chapter 3:16-19 and Matthew, chapter 10:2-4. This list can also be compared to the list in the Acts of the Apostles, chapter 1:13. There are some discrepancies with these names. First on all the lists was Simon. Luke said that Jesus named him Peter, not merely known as Peter. Next Luke had Andrew, the brother of Peter, but he never mentioned him in the call of the first disciples in chapter 5:1-11. Next were the 2 brothers James and John, who were mentioned earlier. James was always listed first. However, they were not called the sons of Zebedee, as they were in the other gospel stories. Mark had a longer explanation about them, calling them the sons of thunder. Clearly, these 4 apostles were considered the most important with Peter at the top of this group, while James played an important role also. The role of Andrew, the brother of Peter, was more ambiguous. They are no longer called the 12 disciples (δώδεκα μαθητὰς) but the 12 apostles (δὲ δώδεκα ἀποστόλων). They had changed from being mere followers (μαθητὰς) to now being sent out as apostles (ἀποστόλων). Matthew had already mentioned, the call of the first 4 disciples in chapter 4:18-22. Now they became the first 4 named apostles. Philip and Bartholomew came next as 5 and 6 in all the lists of the apostles, without any other information about them.
“The son of Melchi,
The son of Addi,
The son of Cosam,
The son of Elmadam,
The son of Er,
The son of Joshua,
The son of Eliezer,
The son of Jorim,
The son of Matthat,
The son of Levi,
The son of Simeon,
The son of Judah,
The son of Joseph,
The son of Jonam,
The son of Eliakim.”
τοῦ Μελχεὶ τοῦ Ἀδδεὶ τοῦ Κωσὰμ τοῦ Ἐλμαδὰμ τοῦ Ἢρ
τοῦ Ἰησοῦ τοῦ Ἐλιέζερ τοῦ Ἰωρεὶμ τοῦ Μαθθὰτ τοῦ Λευεὶ
τοῦ Συμεὼν τοῦ Ἰούδα τοῦ Ἰωσὴφ τοῦ Ἰωνὰμ τοῦ Ἐλιακεὶμ
None of these 15 names match up with any on the list in Matthew, chapter 1:8. Some of these names like Joshua, Levi, Simeon, Judah, and Joseph, could be found in the Torah, but from a more ancient time frame. This list was between the time of David and the Babylonian captivity. Luke listed them as the son of Melchi (τοῦ Μελχεὶ), the son of Addi (τοῦ Ἀδδεὶ), the son of Cosam (τοῦ Κωσὰμ), the son of Elmadam (τοῦ Ἐλμαδὰμ), the son of Er (τοῦ Ἢρ), the son of Joshua (τοῦ Ἰησοῦ), the son of Eliezer (τοῦ Ἐλιέζερ), the son of Jorim (τοῦ Ἰωρεὶμ), the son of Matthat (τοῦ Μαθθὰτ), the son of Levi (τοῦ Λευεὶ), the son of Simeon (τοῦ Συμεὼν), the son of Judah (τοῦ Ἰούδα), the son of Joseph (τοῦ Ἰωσὴφ), the son of Jonam (τοῦ Ἰωνὰμ), and the son of Eliakim (τοῦ Ἐλιακεὶμ).
“It is from within,
From the human heart,
That evil intentions come.
All these evil things
Come from within.
They defile a person.”
ἔσωθεν γὰρ ἐκ τῆς καρδίας τῶν ἀνθρώπων οἱ διαλογισμοὶ οἱ κακοὶ ἐκπορεύονται, πορνεῖαι, κλοπαί, φόνοι,
μοιχεῖαι, πλεονεξίαι, πονηρίαι, δόλος, ἀσέλγεια, ὀφθαλμὸς πονηρός, βλασφημία, ὑπερηφανία, ἀφροσύνη·
πάντα ταῦτα τὰ πονηρὰ ἔσωθεν ἐκπορεύεται καὶ κοινοῖ τὸν ἄνθρωπον.
There is something similar to this in Matthew, chapter 15:19-20. Mark indicated that Jesus said that it is from within the heart of a person (ἔσωθεν γὰρ ἐκ τῆς καρδίας τῶν ἀνθρώπων) that evil or wicked thoughts come forth spreading out (οἱ διαλογισμοὶ οἱ κακοὶ ἐκπορεύονται). This included such evil things as fornication or pornography (πορνεῖαι), theft (κλοπαί), murders or killings (φόνοι), adulteries (μοιχεῖαι), avarice (πλεονεξίαι), wickedness (πονηρίαι), deceit (δόλος), licentiousness or wanton sensuality (ἀσέλγεια,), envy or the evil eye (ὀφθαλμὸς πονηρός), slander, abusive language, or blasphemy (βλασφημία), pride (ὑπερηφανία), and folly or foolishness (ἀφροσύνη). This list in Mark was longer and different than the list in Matthew. All these evil things came from within (πάντα ταῦτα τὰ πονηρὰ ἔσωθεν). They come forth from the person (ἐκπορεύεται). They are the things that defile a person (καὶ κοινοῖ τὸν ἄνθρωπον). You can clearly see what Jesus, his disciples, and the early Christian community considered as sins or defilements that made a person unclean or defiled.
Then there was
The son of Alphaeus,
καὶ Ἀνδρέαν καὶ Φίλιππον καὶ Βαρθολομαῖον καὶ Μαθθαῖον καὶ Θωμᾶν καὶ Ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ Ἁλφαίου καὶ Θαδδαῖον καὶ Σίμωνα τὸν Καναναῖον
This section about naming the 12 apostles is similar to Matthew, chapter 10:3-4, and Luke, chapter 6:14-16. This list can also be compared to the list in the Acts of the Apostles, chapter 1:13. Except for Matthew and Andrew, the other 6 apostles are not mentioned by name elsewhere in the gospels. Andrew (καὶ Ἀνδρέαν), the brother of Simon, is first here, but without being called his brother. Then there was Philip (Φίλιππον), Bartholomew (καὶ Βαρθολομαῖον), Matthew (καὶ Μαθθαῖον), not called Levi, Thomas (καὶ Θωμᾶν), James, the son of Alphaeus (Ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ Ἁλφαίου), Thaddaeus (καὶ Θαδδαῖον), Simon the Cananaean (καὶ Σίμωνα τὸν Καναναῖον). Obviously, this Simon may have not been Jewish since he is called a Cananaean. Sometimes, this may have been a reference to the Zealots. In Mark 2:14, Levi or Matthew was called the son of Alphaeus as James is here. However, Thaddaeus was only listed by Matthew and Mark, while Luke and the Acts listed him as Jude or Judas, the son of James, not Thaddaeus. Are these two-different people or just two different names? Is this Jude Thaddeus like Simon Peter and Levi Matthew? Did he have a Jewish and a Greek name?
There was Simon
Whom he named Peter.”
καὶ ἐποίησεν τοὺς δώδεκα, καὶ ἐπέθηκεν ὄνομα τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρον·
This section about the names of the 12 apostles is similar to Mathew, chapter 10:2-4 and Luke, chapter 6:13-16. This list can also be compared to the list in the Acts of the Apostles, chapter 1:13. Mark said that Jesus appointed these 12 disciples as apostles (καὶ ἐποίησεν τοὺς δώδεκα). First of all, there was Simon, known as Peter (καὶ ἐπέθηκεν ὄνομα τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρον). Mark indicated that Simon’s name of Peter came from Jesus. It is interesting that his brother Andrew was not listed here as in in the other listings in Matthew and Luke, since his calling was linked with his brother Simon in Mark, chapter 1:16-17. Instead, he was listed with the other apostles later. Why did Andrew not make the cut with his brother Simon here?
One of the earliest attempts at solidifying a Christian canon or list of books was made by Marcion of Sinope (85-160 CE). He rejected the Hebrew Scriptures, so that other Christian leaders denounced him. Thus, he was excommunicated from the proto-orthodox Christian Church community. However, he was the first to publish his own list of New Testament books around the year 140 CE, that included 10 letters of Paul and the Gospel of Luke.