Luke said that the Scribes (οἱ γραμματεῖς) and the chief priests (καὶ οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς) realized or perceived (ἔγνωσαν γὰρ) that he had told this parable against them (ὅτι πρὸς αὐτοὺς εἶπεν τὴν παραβολὴν ταύτην). There was something similar in Matthew chapter 21:45, and Mark, chapter 12:12. Mark said that the unnamed “they” realized or knew that Jesus had told this parable against them (ἔγνωσαν γὰρ ὅτι πρὸς αὐτοὺς τὴν παραβολὴν εἶπεν). They were the wicked evil tenants of the vineyard. The landowner was God the Father. The slaves were the Israelite prophets, while Jesus was the Son of the Father. In Matthew, the chief priests and the Pharisees (οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι) did not have to wait for an explanation of this parable about the wicked evil tenants of the vineyard. They knew or realized, on hearing (Καὶ ἀκούσαντες) this parable story (τὰς παραβολὰς αὐτοῦ), that these evil tenants that Jesus was talking about was them (ἔγνωσαν ὅτι περὶ αὐτῶν λέγει). Thus, the Jerusalem Jewish religious leaders understood that this parable was clearly aimed at them. Have you ever realized that people were talking about you?
Luke indicated that Jesus said to them (λέγων αὐτοῖς) that it was written (Γέγραπται) that my house shall be a house of prayer (Καὶ ἔσται ὁ οἶκός μου οἶκος προσευχῆς). However, they had made it into a den or hideout of robbers or thieves (ὑμεῖς δὲ αὐτὸν ἐποιήσατε σπήλαιον λῃστῶν). This first citation about the house of prayer is from 3rd Isaiah, chapter 56:7, while the second citation about how they have made his Temple into a den of robbers is from Jeremiah, chapter 7:11. These biblical citations of Jesus in the Temple can also be found in Matthew, chapter 21:13, and Mark, chapter 11:17, almost word for word. John, chapter 2:16-17, was slightly different, since he used a citation from Psalm 69:9, where the Psalmist or David had great zeal for the house of Yahweh that he was about to construct. Mark said that Jesus was teaching (καὶ ἐδίδασκεν). He asked them if they knew where it was written in Scripture (καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Οὐ γέγραπται) that his house shall be called a house of prayer (ὅτι Ὁ οἶκός μου οἶκος προσευχῆς κληθήσεται) for all the nations (πᾶσιν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν). Matthew and Luke did not mention all the nations. However, the Temple functionaries were making it into a den or hideout of robbers or bandits (ὑμεῖς δὲ πεποιήκατε αὐτὸν σπήλαιον λῃστῶν). Likewise, Matthew said that Jesus told them that it was written in Scripture (καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς Γέγραπται) that his house shall be called a house of prayer (Ὁ οἶκός μου οἶκος προσευχῆς κληθήσεται). However, they were making it into a den or hideout of robbers or bandits (ὑμεῖς δὲ αὐτὸν ποιεῖτε σπήλαιον λῃστῶν). In all cases, Jesus was upset that the Jerusalem Temple house of prayer had been hijacked by a bunch of thieves and robbers. What kind of house of prayer do you pray in?
Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus said that this slave who knew what his master or lord wanted (ἐκεῖνος δὲ ὁ δοῦλος ὁ γνοὺς τὸ θέλημα τοῦ κυρίου αὐτοῦ), but did not prepare himself (καὶ μὴ ἑτοιμάσας) or do the will of his master (ἢ ποιήσας πρὸς τὸ θέλημα αὐτοῦ), will receive a severe beating with many blows (δαρήσεται πολλάς). This addition about the knowing and not knowing slave was the end of this parable in Luke, but not in Matthew. Do you think that slaves should be beaten?
Luke indicated that Jesus knew what they were thinking (αὐτὸς δὲ εἰδὼς αὐτῶν τὰ διανοήματα). He said to them (εἶπεν αὐτοῖς) that every kingdom (Πᾶσα βασιλεία) divided against itself (ἐφ’ ἑαυτὴν διαμερισθεῖσα) becomes desolate (ἐρημοῦται). One house falls against another house (καὶ οἶκος ἐπὶ οἶκον πίπτει). There were similar statements in Mark, chapter 3:24-25, and Matthew, chapter 12:25. Mark indicated that Jesus responded to the Scribes with his house divided remarks. Jesus said to them that if a kingdom was divided against itself, that kingdom would not be able to stand. If a house was divided against itself that house would not be able to endure. This was one of President Abraham Lincoln’s (1809-1865) favorite biblical passages about slavery. Matthew said that Jesus knew what the inner thoughts of the Pharisees were, so that he said to them that every kingdom divided against itself would be destroyed. No city or house divided against itself could endure for a long time. This was a very strong argument against Jesus and Beelzebul working together. What do you think the relationship of Jesus to the devil is?
Luke said that they laughed at Jesus (καὶ κατεγέλων αὐτοῦ), because they knew that the young girl was dead (εἰδότες ὅτι ἀπέθανεν). This episode of the crowd laughing at Jesus is similar to what can be found in Matthew, chapter 9:24, and Mark, chapter 5:40. Mark said that they laughed at him or ridiculed Jesus, so that he put the crowd outside. He then took the child’s father and mother, and those who were with him, his 3 trusted apostles, in where the child was. Jesus had gotten rid of the mourners and skeptics, as he now had the true believers with him and the little girl. Matthew also said that mourners laughed at Jesus or ridiculed him. This will not be the only time that people will ridicule Jesus and his disciples. Have you ever laughed or ridiculed someone else’s religious beliefs or practices?
Luke said that a large herd of swine or pigs (ἦν δὲ ἐκεῖ ἀγέλη χοίρων) was feeding (ἱκανῶν βοσκομένη) on a hillside mountain (ἐν τῷ ὄρει). These demons begged Jesus (καὶ παρεκάλεσαν αὐτὸν) to allows them to enter these pigs (ἵνα ἐπιτρέψῃ αὐτοῖς εἰς ἐκείνους εἰσελθεῖν). Thus, Jesus gave them permission (καὶ ἐπέτρεψεν αὐτοῖς). All three synoptic gospels, Mark, chapter 5:11-12, Matthew, chapter 8:30-31, and Luke here, have these demoniacs ask to be sent into this herd of pigs nearby, with slight nuances in each story. Mark said that this incident took place near a mountain or hill. There was a large herd of swine, pigs, or hogs feeding on this hill, since this was gentile or a Greek area that was not Jewish. Then the unclean spirits, not the demoniac, begged, entreated, or beseeched Jesus to send them into these pigs or swine. Matthew said that this large herd of pigs was feeding in a pasture at some distance away from them, since this was a non-Jewish, gentile area. Then the demoniacs begged Jesus to send them into these pigs. It seems like these evil spirits knew that they belonged in the unclean pigs or swine. Have you ever seen a hog farm?
Luke said that a woman who was a sinner (καὶ ἰδοὺ γυνὴ…ἁμαρτωλός) in that town (ἦν ἐν τῇ πόλει) learned or knew (καὶ ἐπιγνοῦσα) that Jesus was reclining at table in the Pharisee’s house (ὅτι κατάκειται ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ τοῦ Φαρισαίου). She brought an alabaster bottle of oil, ointment, or Myron (κομίσασα ἀλάβαστρον μύρου). Her specific sin was not mentioned here, but she might have been a prostitute, since she was publically known in the town as a sinner by many of those there at this dinner party. However, she brought an elegant alabaster bottle of oil or Myron. There was a similar story with a sinning woman coming with a jar of oil in Matthew, chapter 26:6, Mark, chapter 14:3, and John, chapter 12:1, but within a different context, at Bethany and nearly right before the crucifixion of Jesus. John identified this woman as Mary, the sister of Lazarus. Some have identified this sinning woman as Mary Magdalene. Here Jesus was at the house of a Pharisee, when this woman also brought an alabaster oil bottle. Do you know any sinning women?
Luke said that even though Jesus knew what they were thinking (αὐτὸς δὲ ᾔδει τοὺς διαλογισμοὺς αὐτῶν), he said (εἶπεν) to the man with the withered hand (δὲ τῷ ἀνδρὶ τῷ ξηρὰν ἔχοντι τὴν χεῖρα) to get up (Ἔγειρε) and stand there in the middle of them (καὶ στῆθι εἰς τὸ μέσον). The man got up (καὶ ἀναστὰς) and stood there (ἔστη). This is similar to Mark, chapter 3:3, while Matthew, chapter 12:11-12, had Jesus go on to talk about saving lost sheep on the Sabbath. Mark simply indicated that Jesus said to the man with the withered hand to come to him, somewhat like Luke here.
Luke then explained what the good news or the gospel proclamation was all about. A savior was born for them that day (ὅτι ἐτέχθη ὑμῖν σήμερον Σωτήρ) in the city of David (ἐν πόλει Δαυείδ). As they were on the outskirts of Bethlehem, they knew where the city of David was. This savior was the Christ (ὅς ἐστιν Χριστὸς), the Messiah, the Lord (Κύριος). Luke listed all the names that would be applied to Jesus. He was a savior, someone who would protect Israel. He was the Christ, the anointed one of God. He was the Messiah, the expected liberator of his people, the Israelites. He was the Lord, God, truly divine. This baby Jesus would be all these things rolled up into one. This was really big news.
Luke seems to indicate that Elizabeth knew the answer to her question. She said that as soon as she heard with her ears the sound of Mary’s greeting (ἰδοὺ γὰρ ὡς ἐγένετο ἡ φωνὴ τοῦ ἀσπασμοῦ σου εἰς τὰ ὦτά μου), the child or baby in her womb leapt or jumped for joy or exultation (ἐσκίρτησεν ἐν ἀγαλλιάσει τὸ βρέφος ἐν τῇ κοιλίᾳ μου). This was a repetition of what was said in verse 41, except that Elizabeth said it here. John knew Jesus from the very beginning of his existence.