They seek to destroy Jesus (Lk 19:47-19:47)

“Everyday,

Jesus was teaching

In the Temple.

The chief priests,

The Scribes,

And the leaders

Of the people

Kept looking

For a way

To kill him.”

 

Καὶ ἦν διδάσκων τὸ καθ’ ἡμέραν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ· οἱ δὲ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ γραμματεῖς ἐζήτουν αὐτὸν ἀπολέσαι καὶ οἱ πρῶτοι τοῦ λαοῦ,

 

Luke said that everyday Jesus was teaching in the Temple (Καὶ ἦν διδάσκων τὸ καθ’ ἡμέραν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ).  The chief priests (οἱ δὲ ἀρχιερεῖς), the Scribes (καὶ οἱ γραμματεῖς), and the other leaders of the people (καὶ οἱ πρῶτοι τοῦ λαοῦ,) kept looking for a way to kill or destroy Jesus (ἐζήτουν αὐτὸν ἀπολέσαι).  There were no Pharisees or Sadducees mentioned here, but these other people were trying to figure out a way to kill Jesus.  There was something similar in Mark, chapter 11:17.  Mark said that the chief priests and the Scribes heard about this incident in the Temple (καὶ ἤκουσαν οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ γραμματεῖς).  Thus, they kept seeking or looking for a way to destroy or kill Jesus (καὶ ἐζήτουν πῶς αὐτὸν ἀπολέσωσιν).  This cleansing of the Temple may have been the immediate event that caused the Jerusalem elders to be suspicious of Jesus.  However, there was nothing like this in Matthew.  Would you be suspicious if someone disrupted your religious services?

Advertisements

Kill my enemies (Lk 19:27-19:27)

“But as for these enemies

Of mine,

Who did not want me

To be king

Over them,

Bring them here!

Slaughter them

In my presence!”

 

πλὴν τοὺς ἐχθρούς μου τούτους τοὺς μὴ θελήσαντάς με βασιλεῦσαι ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς ἀγάγετε ὧδε καὶ κατασφάξατε αὐτοὺς ἔμπροσθέν μου.

 

Luke uniquely has this comment of Jesus about the nobleman talking about his enemies (πλὴν τοὺς ἐχθρούς μου τούτους) who did not want him to be their king (τοὺς μὴ θελήσαντάς με βασιλεῦσαι ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς).  He wanted them brought to him (ἀγάγετε ὧδε) so that they could kill them in his presence (καὶ κατασφάξατε αὐτοὺς ἔμπροσθέν μου).  Once again, there is a unique word in Luke, κατασφάξατε, meaning to kill off, slaughter, or slay, that is not found in any of the other Greek biblical literature.  This will be a bloodbath.  This concludes the comments that were in verse 14, earlier in this chapter.  There was nothing about this killing in Matthew, only the weeping and gnashing of teeth.  Perhaps Luke combined two stories here.  Do you punish people who do not like you?

He will rise on the third day (Lk 18:33-18:33)

“After they have

Flogged him,

They will kill him.

On the third day,

He will rise again.”

 

καὶ μαστιγώσαντες ἀποκτενοῦσιν αὐτόν, καὶ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ τρίτῃ ἀναστήσεται,

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that after they had flogged (καὶ μαστιγώσαντες) the Son of Man, they would kill him (ἀποκτενοῦσιν αὐτόν).  However, on the third day (καὶ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ τρίτῃ), he would rise again (ἀναστήσεται).  Mark, chapter 10:34, and Matthew, chapter 20:19, have something similar.  Mark indicated that Jesus said that they would mock or ridicule him (καὶ ἐμπαίξουσιν αὐτῷ).  They would spit on him (καὶ ἐμπτύσουσιν αὐτῷ).  They would flog or scourge him (καὶ μαστιγώσουσιν αὐτὸν).  Finally, they would kill him (καὶ ἀποκτενοῦσιν).  However, after three days (καὶ μετὰ τρεῖς ἡμέρας), he would rise again (ἀναστήσεται), as here in LukeMatthew indicated that Jesus said that they would mock or ridicule the Son of Man (εἰς τὸ ἐμπαῖξαι).  They would scourge him (καὶ μαστιγῶσαι).  Finally, they would crucify him (καὶ σταυρῶσαι), the common form of Roman execution.  Matthew was the only gospel writer here to mention the way of death, the crucifixion.  However, on the 3rd day, the Son of Man would be raised up (καὶ τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ ἐγερθήσεται).  Obviously, Jesus was talking about himself, but he always used the term Son of Man in talking about his future suffering, death, and resurrection.  What do you think about the resurrection of Jesus on the 3rd day?

The commandments (Lk 18:20-18:20)

“You know the commandments.

‘Do not commit adultery!

Do not murder!

Do not steal!

Do not bear false witness!

Honor your father

And mother!’”

 

τὰς ἐντολὰς οἶδας Μὴ μοιχεύσῃς, Μὴ φονεύσῃς, Μὴ κλέψῃς, Μὴ ψευδομαρτυρήσῃς, Τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου καὶ τὴν μητέρα.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said to this ruler that he knew the commandments (τὰς ἐντολὰς οἶδας).  Then he listed a few that were “Do not commit adultery (Μὴ μοιχεύσῃς,)!”  “Do not murder (Μὴ φονεύσῃς)!”  “Do not steal (Μὴ κλέψῃς)!”  “Do not bear false witness (Μὴ ψευδομαρτυρήσῃς)!”  “Honor your father and your mother (Τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου καὶ τὴν μητέρα)!”  Thus, Jesus emphasized which commandments he wanted this man to keep.  This can also be found in Mark, chapter 10:19, and Matthew, chapter 19:17-19, but slightly different, since Luke and Mark are closer to each other.  Mark said that Jesus gave the classic answer for those who wanted to enter eternal life.  They knew the commandments or laws (τὰς ἐντολὰς οἶδας).  Follow them!  Mark did not have any question about which commandments to follow.  Jesus just mentioned some of the commandments.  You shall not kill or murder (Μὴ φονεύσῃς)!  You shall not commit adultery (Μὴ μοιχεύσῃς)!  You shall not steal (Μὴ κλέψῃς)!  You shall not bear false witness (Μὴ ψευδομαρτυρήσῃς)!  You shall not defraud (Μὴ ἀποστερήσῃς)!  Honor your father (Τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου)!  Honor your mother (καὶ τὴν μητέρα)!  All of these are from the Ten Commandments in Exodus, chapter 20:12-16, and Deuteronomy, chapter 5:16-20.  Mark added the comment about not defrauding others that was not in Luke.  In Matthew, this person asked Jesus which commandments (λέγει αὐτῷ Ποίας) should he follow.  Thus, Jesus responded to him (ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἔφη) directly citing which commandments.  You shall not kill or murder (ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἔφη)!  You shall not commit adultery (Οὐ μοιχεύσεις)!  You shall not steal (Οὐ κλέψεις)!  You shall not bear false witness (Οὐ ψευδομαρτυρήσεις)!  Honor your father (Τίμα τὸν πατέρα)!  Honor your mother (καὶ τὴν μητέρα)!  All of these are the same as in Mark and Luke.  However, Matthew added something not in the other two gospel stories.  This man was to love or esteem his neighbor as himself (καὶ Ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν), that was from Leviticus, chapter 19:18.  Do you think that the Ten Commandments are important?

The fatted calf (Lk 15:23-15:23)

“Get the fatted calf!

Kill it!

Let us eat!

Let us celebrate!”

 

καὶ φέρετε τὸν μόσχον τὸν σιτευτόν, θύσατε, καὶ φαγόντες εὐφρανθῶμεν,

 

This long parable story about the prodigal son can only be found in Luke, not in any of the other gospel stories.  Luke indicated that Jesus said that the father of this returning prodigal son told his slaves to bring the fatted calf (καὶ φέρετε τὸν μόσχον τὸν σιτευτόν) and sacrifice or kill it (θύσατε).  They were going to eat it (καὶ φαγόντες) and celebrate a feast (εὐφρανθῶμεν).  The fatten calf was a specially fed young cow that was kept for eating at special occasions.  Once again, Luke is the only biblical writer who used this term σιτευτόν, that means fattened calf, 3 times in this story.  Let the good times roll!  Do you like beef?

 

Do not be afraid (Lk 12:4-12:4)

“I tell you!

My friends!

Do not fear

Those who kill the body!

But after that,

They can do

Nothing more.”

 

Λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν τοῖς φίλοις μου, μὴ φοβηθῆτε ἀπὸ τῶν ἀποκτεννόντων τὸ σῶμα καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα μὴ ἐχόντων περισσότερόν τι ποιῆσαι.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said with a solemn proclamation for his friends (Λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν τοῖς φίλοις μου).  They were not to fear (μὴ φοβηθῆτε) those who killed the body (ἀπὸ τῶν ἀποκτεννόντων τὸ σῶμα), because after that, they could not do anything more (καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα μὴ ἐχόντων περισσότερόν τι ποιῆσαι).  This is similar to Matthew, chapter 10:28, indicating a Q source.  Jesus, via Matthew, warned his followers that they should not fear or be afraid (καὶ μὴ φοβεῖσθε) of those people who might kill their body (ἀπὸ τῶν ἀποκτεννόντων τὸ σῶμα), but were unable to kill their soul (τὴν δὲ ψυχὴν μὴ δυναμένων ἀποκτεῖναι).  Matthew specifically mentioned the soul that Luke did not.  Do you fear death?

The wisdom of God (Lk 11:49-11:49)

“Therefore,

The Wisdom of God said.

‘I will send them

Prophets

And apostles.

They will kill

And persecute

Some of them.’”

 

διὰ τοῦτο καὶ ἡ σοφία τοῦ Θεοῦ εἶπεν Ἀποστελῶ εἰς αὐτοὺς προφήτας καὶ ἀποστόλους, καὶ ἐξ αὐτῶν ἀποκτενοῦσιν καὶ διώξουσιν,

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that the Wisdom of God (διὰ τοῦτο καὶ ἡ σοφία τοῦ Θεοῦ εἶπεν) said that he would send them prophets (Ἀποστελῶ εἰς αὐτοὺς προφήτας) and apostles (καὶ ἀποστόλους).  However, they would kill (ἀποκτενοῦσιν) and persecute (καὶ διώξουσιν) some of them (καὶ ἐξ αὐτῶν).  There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 23:34, perhaps a Q source, about the killing of prophets.  Jesus said, via Matthew, that he was going to send them prophets, sages or wise men, and scribes, the heroes of the Hebrew Scripture and the Mosaic Law.  However, instead of respecting them, they were going to kill some, crucify some, and flog or scourge some in their synagogues.  They were going to go from town to town persecuting some also.  Jesus had mentioned the possibility of death or crucifixion for his followers earlier.  Luke had Jesus slightly more restrained here.  He mentioned the Wisdom of God (ἡ σοφία τοῦ Θεοῦ) as he had done earlier in chapter 7:35, either indicating Holy Scripture or the personification of wisdom.  What do you know about the wisdom of God?