Jude (Jude 1:1)

“Jude,

A servant

Of Jesus Christ

And brother

Of James,

To those who are called,

Who are beloved

Of God the Father

And kept safe

For Jesus Christ.”

Ἰούδας Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ δοῦλος, ἀδελφὸς δὲ Ἰακώβου, τοῖς ἐν Θεῷ Πατρὶ ἠγαπημένοις καὶ Ἰησοῦ Χριστῷ τετηρημένοις κλητοῖς.

This author said “Jude (Ἰούδας), a servant (δοῦλος) of Jesus Christ (Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ) and brother (ἀδελφὸς) of James (δὲ Ἰακώβου), to those (τοῖς) who are called (κλητοῖς), who are beloved (ἠγαπημένοις) of God (ἐν Θεῷ) the Father (Πατρὶ) and kept safe (τετηρημένοις) for Jesus Christ (καὶ Ἰησοῦ Χριστῷ).”  This author proclaimed that he was Jude or Judas.  He was not anonymous.  He called himself a slave or servant of Jesus Christ.  Perhaps the most difficult problem is that this Jude called himself the brother of James.  In Mark, chapter 6:3, James, Joses, Judas, and Simon are called the brothers of Jesus.  In Luke, chapter 6:16, there are two of the twelve apostles called Judas, the son of James, and Judas Iscariot, who became a traitor.  In Acts, chapter 1:13, there was another mention of Judas the son of James as one of the now eleven apostles.  As far as this Judas was concerned, there is some more confusion, since he does not appear in the lists of the twelve apostles in Mark, chapter 3:18-19 and Matthew, chapter 10:4, who only list a Thaddeus along with Judas Iscariot.  Luke and the Acts listed him as Jude or Judas, the son of James, not Thaddeus.  Are these two-different people or just two different names?  Is this Jude Thaddeus like Simon Peter and Levi Matthew?  Did he have both a Jewish and a Greek name?  Is this the same Judas?  This Jude was writing to the beloved called followers of Jesus Christ that God the Father kept safe.  This Jude may have been a follower of Jesus Christ who was a brother of James and Jesus or an apostle and son of James.  He clearly called himself Jude.  The name Jude derived from the term Jewish man or man of Judea.  He may have been the brother of the James who was the leader of Jewish community in Jerusalem.  It seems to be a generic letter not aimed at a specific Christian community.  What do you know about Jude?

The other apostles (Mk 3:18-3:18)

Then there was

Andrew,

And Philip,

And Bartholomew,

And Matthew,

And Thomas,

And James

The son of Alphaeus,

And Thaddaeus,

And Simon,

The Cananaean.”

 

καὶ Ἀνδρέαν καὶ Φίλιππον καὶ Βαρθολομαῖον καὶ Μαθθαῖον καὶ Θωμᾶν καὶ Ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ Ἁλφαίου καὶ Θαδδαῖον καὶ Σίμωνα τὸν Καναναῖον

 

This section about naming the 12 apostles is similar to Matthew, chapter 10:3-4, and Luke, chapter 6:14-16.  This list can also be compared to the list in the Acts of the Apostles, chapter 1:13.  Except for Matthew and Andrew, the other 6 apostles are not mentioned by name elsewhere in the gospels.  Andrew (καὶ Ἀνδρέαν), the brother of Simon, is first here, but without being called his brother.  Then there was Philip (Φίλιππον), Bartholomew (καὶ Βαρθολομαῖον), Matthew (καὶ Μαθθαῖον), not called Levi, Thomas (καὶ Θωμᾶν), James, the son of Alphaeus (Ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ Ἁλφαίου), Thaddaeus (καὶ Θαδδαῖον), Simon the Cananaean (καὶ Σίμωνα τὸν Καναναῖον).  Obviously, this Simon may have not been Jewish since he is called a Cananaean.  Sometimes, this may have been a reference to the Zealots.  In Mark 2:14, Levi or Matthew was called the son of Alphaeus as James is here.  However, Thaddaeus was only listed by Matthew and Mark, while Luke and the Acts listed him as Jude or Judas, the son of James, not Thaddaeus.  Are these two-different people or just two different names?  Is this Jude Thaddeus like Simon Peter and Levi Matthew?  Did he have a Jewish and a Greek name?

The list of other twelve apostles (Mt 10:3-10:4)

“They were

Philip,

Bartholomew,

Thomas,

Matthew,

The tax collector,

James,

Son of Alphaeus,

Thaddaeus,

Simon the Cananaean,

Judas Iscariot,

The one who betrayed him.”

 

Φίλιππος καὶ Βαρθολομαῖος, Θωμᾶς καὶ Μαθθαῖος ὁ τελώνης, Ἰάκωβος ὁ τοῦ Ἁλφαίου καὶ Θαδδαῖος,

Σίμων ὁ Καναναῖος καὶ Ἰούδας ὁ Ἰσκαριώτης ὁ καὶ παραδοὺς αὐτόν.

 

This section about naming the 12 apostles is similar to Mark, chapter 3:16-19 and Luke, chapter 6:13-16.  This list can also be compared to the list in the Acts of the Apostles, chapter 1:13.  Except for Matthew, the tax collector (καὶ Μαθθαῖος ὁ τελώνης), Matthew had never explicitly mentioned the next 7 apostles by name.  They were Philip (Φίλιππος), Bartholomew (καὶ Βαρθολομαῖος), Thomas (Θωμᾶς), James, the son of Alphaeus (Ἰάκωβος ὁ τοῦ Ἁλφαίου), Thaddaeus (καὶ Θαδδαῖος), Simon the Cananaean (Σίμων ὁ Καναναῖος), and the traitor Judas Iscariot (καὶ Ἰούδας ὁ Ἰσκαριώτης ὁ καὶ παραδοὺς αὐτόν).  Philip, Bartholomew, Thomas, Matthew, James, the son of Alphaeus, Simon the Cananaean, and Judas Iscariot are on all four lists of apostles.  However, Thaddeus is only listed by Matthew and Mark, while Luke and the Acts listed him as Jude or Judas, the son of James, not Thaddeus.  Are these two-different people or just two different names?  Is this Jude Thaddeus like Simon Peter and Levi Matthew?  Did he have a Jewish and a Greek name?

 

Universal letters

There are seven other letters that are not addressed to a specific church, but are more universal in nature.  They are the three letters that have been attributed to John, although there is no explicit mention of his name in them.  They are 1 John, 2 John, and 3 John, dating from 100-110 CE.  There are two letters that explicitly say that they are from Peter, 1 Peter and 2 Peter, written sometime between the late 60s and 130 CE.  Then there are the individually named letters from James, from the 90s-100 CE, and Jude, from 70-90 CE.  These letters have the purported authors as the apostles of the early Christian communities, John, Peter, James, and Jude.