The kings of Judah up to the Babylonian captivity (Mt 1:8-1:11)

“Joram was

The father of Uzziah.

Uzziah was

The father of Jotham.

Jotham was

The father of Ahaz.

Ahaz was

The father of Hezekiah.

Hezekiah was

The father of Manasseh.

Manasseh was

The father of Amos.

Amos was

The father of Josiah.

Josiah was

The father of Jechoniah

And his brothers,

At the time of the deportation

To Babylon.”

 

Ἰωρὰμ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ὀζείαν, Ὀζείας δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰωαθάμ, Ἰωαθὰμ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἄχαζ, Ἄχαζ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἐζεκίαν, Ἐζεκίας δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Μανασσῆ, Μανασσῆς δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἀμώς, Ἀμὼς δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰωσείαν, Ἰωσείας δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰεχονίαν καὶ τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τῆς μετοικεσίας Βαβυλῶνος.

 

The chronology of the Judean kings, as found in 1 and 2 Kings, and 1 Chronicles, chapter 3, picks up with Amaziah’s son, Azariah (Ὀζείαν) or Uzziah who ruled from about 781-740 BCE.  However, here it says that Joram (Ἰωρὰμ) was his father when Joram was the father of Ahaziah.  Uzziah had a son named Jotham (Ἰωαθάμ) who ruled from about 740-736 BCE.  His son Ahaz (Ἄχαζ) ruled from about 736-716 BCE.  His son Hezekiah (Ἐζεκίαν) ruled from about 716-687 BCE.  His son Manasseh (Μανασσῆ) ruled from about 687-642 BCE.  His son Amon or Amos (Ἀμώς) ruled from about 642-640 BCE.  His son Josiah (Ἰωσείαν) ruled from about 640-609 BCE.  Many of Josiah’s sons would rule Judah.  His son Johanan, Jehoahaz or Shallum ruled for just one year about 609 BCE.  His brother (τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς), Josiah’s son Jehoiakim or Eliakim ruled from 609-598 BCE.  His son Jehoiachin, Coniah or Jeconiah (Ἰεχονίαν) ruled for less than a year about 598 BCE.  Zedekiah or Mattaniah, brother of Jehoiakim and son of Josiah, ruled from about 598-587 BCE until the beginning of the Babylonian captivity (ἐπὶ τῆς μετοικεσίας Βαβυλῶνος).  The Greek text used the term “begat” (ἐγέννησεν) to represent the relationships between these 8 men.  However, it seems perfectly acceptable to simply call them the father instead of saying “fathered them.”

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The death of King Uzziah (2 Chr 26:22-26:23)

Now the rest of the acts of King Uzziah, from first to last, the prophet Isaiah son of Amoz wrote. King Uzziah slept with his ancestors. They buried him near his ancestors in the burial field that belonged to the kings. They said. ‘He is a leper.’ His son Jotham succeeded him.”

This is loosely based on 2 Kings, chapter 15. There is so little explanation of his long rule in either book, when other kings got so much ink. Here there is no mention of that lost “Book of the Annals of the Kings of Israel.” Instead, this biblical chronicler refers you to the prophet Isaiah, who never mentioned King Uzziah except in the title of his writing. King Uzziah died and was buried in Jerusalem beside his ancestors. However, there was a special burial site here because he was an unclean leper. Obviously his son King Jotham ruled both in practice and theory.

The punishment of leprosy for King Uzziah (2 Chr 26:16-26:21)

“But when King Uzziah was strong, he grew proud to his destruction. He was false to Yahweh his God. He entered the temple of Yahweh to make an offering on the altar of incense. But priest Azariah went in after him, with eighty priests of Yahweh, men of valor. They withstood King Uzziah, and said to him. ‘It is not for you, King Uzziah, to make an offering to Yahweh, but for the priests, the descendents of Aaron, who are consecrated to make offerings. Go out of the sanctuary! You have done wrong! It will bring you no honor from Yahweh God.’ Then King Uzziah was angry. Now he had a censer in his hand to make an offering. When he became angry with the priests, leprosy broke out on his forehead, in the presence of the priests in the house of Yahweh, by the altar of incense. When the chief priest Azariah, and all the priests, looked at him, he was leprous in his forehead. They hurried him out. He himself hurried to get out, because Yahweh had struck him. King Uzziah was a leper to the day of his death. Being leprous, he lived in a separate house, for he was excluded from the house of Yahweh. His son Jotham was in charge of the palace of the king, governing the people of the land.”

Although this punishment of leprosy for King Uzziah was mentioned in 2 Kings, chapter 15, here this biblical chronicler tells us why he received this leprosy from Yahweh. He, just like Miriam the sister of Moses in Exodus, chapter 40, received this punishment from Yahweh. King Uzziah wanted to offer a sacrifice with incense to Yahweh. Like King Saul in 1 Samuel, he was punished for taking the place of the priest of Yahweh, who alone could offer the incense. The chief priest Azariah, which was the exact name of this king in 2 Kings, along with 80 other Temple priests, told him to stop. King Uzziah became angry. As his anger with the priests occurred, he was suddenly struck with leprosy on his forehead. The priests and even the king himself realized that he was unclean and had to be removed from the Temple immediately. They all hurried to get this unclean leper out of the Temple. This was a permanent leprosy so he had to live in a separate house because of the interdiction against unclean lepers. His son Jotham became king in all practical matters.

The kings of Judah (1 Chr 3:10-3:16)

“The descendants of Solomon were Rehoboam, Abijah his son, Asa his son, Jehoshaphat his son, Joram his son, Ahaziah his son, Joash his son, Amaziah his son, Azariah his son, Jotham his son, Ahaz his son, Hezekiah his son, Manasseh his son, Amon his son, Josiah his son. The sons of Josiah were Johanan the first-born, the second Jehoiakim, the third Zedekiah, the fourth Shallum. The descendants of Jehoiakim were his sons Jeconiah and Zedekiah.”

Here we have the list of the kings of Judah starting with Solomon that can be found at the end of 1 Kings and 2 Kings. Based on those 2 books there was no disruption in the lineage of David via Solomon to all the kings of Judah before the Exile. Unlike the northern kingdom of Israel, there were no revolutions in the southern kingdom of Judah until the end with the Babylonian Captivity. However, there was also a consideration of the kings of Israel in the books of Kings, which is not here at all. The whole emphasis is on Judah and Jerusalem alone. The son of Solomon (1) Rehoboam ruled from about 931-913 BCE. His son (2) Abijah or Abijam ruled from about 913-911 BCE. His son (3) Asa ruled from about 911-870 BCE. His son (4) Jehoshaphat ruled from about 870-848 BCE. His son (5) Joram or Jehoram ruled from about 848-841 BCE. His son (6) Ahaziah, Azariah, or Jehoahaz ruled for less than a year about 841 BCE. There is no mention that Athaliah, Ahaziah’s mother ruled for about 4 years until her grandson (7) Joash or Jehoash ruled from about 835-796 BCE. His son, (8) Amaziah ruled from about 796-781 BCE. His son, (9) Azariah or Uzziah ruled from about 781-740 BCE. His son (10) Jotham ruled from about 740-736 BCE. His son (11) Ahaz ruled from about 736-716 BCE. His son (12) Hezekiah ruled from about 716-687 BCE. His son (13) Manasseh ruled from about 687-642 BCE. His son (14) Amon ruled from about 642-640 BCE. His son (15) Josiah ruled from about 640-609 BCE. Many of Josiah’s sons will rule Judah. His son (16) Johanan, Jehoahaz or Shallum ruled for just one year about 609 BCE. His brother, (17) Josiah’s son Jehoiakim or Eliakim ruled from 609-598 BCE. His son (18) Jehoiachin, Coniah or Jeconiah ruled for less than a year about 598 BCE. (19) Zedekiah or Mattaniah, brother of Jehoiakim and son of Josiah, ruled from about 598-587 BCE until the beginning of the Babylonian captivity.

 

The reign of the bad King Ahaz in Judah (736-716 BCE) (2 Kings 16:1-16:4)

“In the seventeenth year of King Pekah son of Remaliah, Ahaz son of King Jotham of Judah began to reign. King Ahaz was twenty years old when he began to reign. He reigned sixteen years in Jerusalem. He did not do what was right in the sight of Yahweh his God, as his ancestor David had done, but he walked in the way of the kings of Israel. He even made his son pass through a fire offering, according to the abominable practices of the nations whom Yahweh drove out before the people of Israel. He sacrificed and made offerings on the high places, and on the hills, and under every green tree.”

King Ahaz, unlike his father and grandfather and ancestor King David, was an evil king. He not only tolerated the high places of non-Yahweh worship, he went there himself and made offerings. He allowed sacrifices to be made in many places on hills and under trees. He even made a human sacrifice of his son, like the early inhabitants of Canaan had done. King Ahaz walked in the ways of the kings of Israel. He was young, about 20 when he began to rule. He ruled for 16 years which would put his death at 36. However, the Bible of Jerusalem title only indicates 10 years.

The death of King Azariah (2 Kings 15:6-15:7)

“Now the rest of the acts of King Azariah, and all that he did, are they not written in the Book of the Annals of the Kings of Judah? King Azariah slept with his ancestors. They buried him with his ancestors in the city of David. His son King Jotham succeeded him.”

Once again, there is so little explanation of this long rule, when other kings get so much ink. Of course, you could always refer to that lost “Book of the Annals of the Kings of Israel,” if you could find it.   He died and was buried in Jerusalem with his ancestors. There is no mention of a special burial site here.

 

The leper King Azariah and his son (2 Kings 15:5-15:5)

“Yahweh struck King Azariah, so that he was a leprous to the day of his death. He lived in a separate house. Jotham the king’s son was in charge of the palace, governing the people of the land.”

For some unstated reason here, Yahweh struck this so-called good king with leprosy. Thus he had to live in a separate house because of the interdiction against lepers. His son Jotham became king in all practical matters. 2 Chronicles will give a further explanation of this, but here there is no explanation.