“When Jesus was
Twelve years old,
They went up
For the festival.”
Καὶ ὅτε ἐγένετο ἐτῶν δώδεκα, ἀναβαινόντων αὐτῶν κατὰ τὸ ἔθος τῆς ἑορτῆς,
Now we have another unique saying of Luke about the age of Jesus. When Jesus was 12 years old (Καὶ ὅτε ἐγένετο ἐτῶν δώδεκα), the whole family went up to Jerusalem (ἀναβαινόντων αὐτῶν) as usual for the festival of Passover (κατὰ τὸ ἔθος τῆς ἑορτῆς). This was not a bar mitzvah or confirmation, since this Jewish practice came later. However, Jesus would have been on the verge of puberty. The number 12 would play a major role in the life of Jesus, since he had 12 apostles, who were called the Twelve. This episode is the only insight into the life of Jesus between his birth and the baptism by John, that can be found in any of the canonical biblical gospel narratives. There are many stories about the boyhood of Jesus in some apocryphal gospels. Thus, this story takes on a special canonical importance.
And all the Jews,
Do not eat
Unless they wash
Of the elders.”
οἱ γὰρ Φαρισαῖοι καὶ πάντες οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι ἐὰν μὴ πυγμῇ νίψωνται τὰς χεῖρας οὐκ ἐσθίουσιν, κρατοῦντες τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν πρεσβυτέρων,
There is nothing like this elsewhere, because Mark was explaining this Jewish practice to his gentile Christian readers. Mark said that the Pharisees (οἱ γὰρ Φαρισαῖοι) and all the Jews (καὶ πάντες οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι) did not eat. unless they had washed their hands (μὴ πυγμῇ νίψωνται τὰς χεῖρας οὐκ ἐσθίουσιν). Not washing hands was considered to be not upholding or a violation against the Jewish tradition of the elders or priests (κρατοῦντες τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν πρεσβυτέρων). The importance of this tradition was clearly seen in Matthew, chapter 15:2, in this more Jewish Christian writing. It is not clear that all Jews followed this tradition, but the Pharisees certainly did. Originally, this practice of washing hands before eating was what the priestly Levites did in the Temple to practice ritual purity as indicated in Exodus, chapter 30:17-21. Yahweh had told Moses that there should be a bronze basin with a bronze stand for washing. Thus, Aaron and his sons should wash their hands and feet when they went into the meeting tent or the altar. The penalty for not washing your hands and feet was death under this perpetual ordinance. However, the Pharisaic oral tradition, or the tradition of the elders, had extended this practice to individual and their own homes.