Jesus of Nazareth (Acts 2:22)

“Men of Israel!

Hear these words!

Jesus of Nazareth,

Is a man

Attested to you

By God

With powerful deeds,

Wonders,

And signs.

God did

These things

Through him,

Among you.

You yourselves know this.”

Ἄνδρες Ἰσραηλεῖται, ἀκούσατε τοὺς λόγους τούτους· Ἰησοῦν τὸν Ναζωραῖον, ἄνδρα ἀποδεδειγμένον ἀπὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ εἰς ὑμᾶς δυνάμεσι καὶ τέρασι καὶ σημείοις, οἷς ἐποίησεν δι’ αὐτοῦ ὁ Θεὸς ἐν μέσῳ ὑμῶν, καθὼς αὐτοὶ οἴδατε,

The author of Acts indicated that Peter finished with his citation from the prophet Joel.  He then turned to the crowd around him and said “Men of Israel (Ἄνδρες Ἰσραηλεῖται)!  Hear these words (ἀκούσατε τοὺς λόγους τούτους)!”  He went on to explain that Jesus of Nazareth (Ἰησοῦν τὸν Ναζωραῖον) was the man (ἄνδρα) attested (ἀποδεδειγμένον) to them (εἰς ὑμᾶς) by God (ἀπὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ) with powerful actions or miracles (δυνάμεσι), wonders (καὶ τέρασι), and signs (καὶ σημείοις).  God did this through him (οἷς ἐποίησεν δι’ αὐτοῦ ὁ Θεὸς) among them (ἐν μέσῳ ὑμῶν).  But they knew all this (καθὼς αὐτοὶ οἴδατε).  Peter turned to the various Jewish people gathered for the Pentecost festival, particularly the Israelites.  He called Jesus a man attested by God, unlike John who called Jesus the Word of God, who became flesh.  God had done wonderful deeds, wonders, and signs through Jesus, indicating his divine power.  However, they knew all this already.  Peter was describing the basic teaching about Jesus among the early Christian followers.  Do you know about Jesus and do nothing about it?

Jesus is passing by (Lk 18:37-18:37)

“They told him.

‘Jesus of Nazareth

Is passing by.’”

 

ἀπήγγειλαν δὲ αὐτῷ ὅτι Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζωραῖος παρέρχεται.

 

Luke indicated that someone told this blind beggar (ἀπήγγειλαν δὲ αὐτῷ) that Jesus of Nazareth (ὅτι Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζωραῖος) was passing by (παρέρχεται).  Mark, chapter 10:47, said that Bartimaeus heard that it is was Jesus of Nazareth, (καὶ ἀκούσας ὅτι Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζαρηνός ἐστιν), not just anyone in general passing by.  Matthew, chapter 20:30, had the two blind beggars also hear that Jesus was passing by.  Notice the emphasis on hearing by these blind beggars.  Hearing was important for listening to the word of Jesus.  Those who do not see usually have a better sense of hearing.  Do you hear very well?

The Holy One of God (Lk 4:34-4:34)

“‘Let us alone!

What have you

To do with us?

Jesus of Nazareth!

Have you come

To destroy us?

I know

Who you are!

The Holy One of God!’”

 

Ἔα, τί ἡμῖν καὶ σοί, Ἰησοῦ Ναζαρηνέ; ἦλθες ἀπολέσαι ἡμᾶς; οἶδά σε τίς εἶ, ὁ Ἅγιος τοῦ Θεοῦ.

 

Matthew, chapter 8:29, has something similar, but it was not in a Capernaum synagogue, but in Gadarenes and it was 2 demonic spirits, not one as here.  Mark, chapter 1:24 is similar to here, word for word.  On the other hand, Mark, chapter 5:7, as well as Luke, chapter 8;28 had these demoniacs speak to Jesus with somewhat similar words.  Here Luke said that the evils spirits in this man spoke to Jesus.  He asked Jesus of Nazareth (Ἰησοῦ Ναζαρηνέ) what he had to do with them (Ἔα, τί ἡμῖν καὶ σοί).  Had Jesus come to destroy or kill them (ἦλθες ἀπολέσαι ἡμᾶς)?  He said that he knew who he was (οἶδά σε τίς εἶ), the Holy One of God (ὁ Ἅγιος τοῦ Θεοῦ).  Matthew had them say that Jesus had come to torment them, not destroy them, since the time of the final judgment day had not arrived.  This unclean spirit world was alive and active in first century Israelite culture.  The term “Holy One of God” had been applied to the prophet Elisha in 2 Kings, chapter 4:9, as another name for a prophet, which was not as strong as the “Son of God,” a more powerful term.  Thus, the evil spirits were able to recognize Jesus of Nazareth as a special person.

Jesus has risen (Mk 16:6-16:6)

“However,

This man said to them.

‘Do not be alarmed!

You are looking for

Jesus of Nazareth,

Who was crucified.

He has been raised!

He is not here!

Look!

There is the place

Where they laid him.”

 

ὁ δὲ λέγει αὐταῖς Μὴ ἐκθαμβεῖσθε· Ἰησοῦν ζητεῖτε τὸν Ναζαρηνὸν τὸν ἐσταυρωμένον· ἠγέρθη, οὐκ ἔστιν ὧδε· ἴδε ὁ τόπος ὅπου ἔθηκαν αὐτόν.

 

This text is similar to Matthew, chapter 28:5-6, where the angel told the women not to be alarmed because Jesus, the crucified one, had risen from the dead.  Luke, chapter 24:5-8, had the 2 men deliver a long soliloquy about Jesus and the resurrection.  John, chapter 20:13-14, had the 2 men turn into Jesus.  Mark remarked that this man with the white clothes said to the 3 women (ὁ δὲ λέγει αὐταῖς) that they were not to be afraid or amazed (Μὴ ἐκθαμβεῖσθε).  He knew that they were looking for or seeking Jesus of Nazareth (Ἰησοῦν ζητεῖτε τὸν Ναζαρηνὸν), who had been crucified (τὸν ἐσταυρωμένον).  He told them that Jesus had risen (ἠγέρθη).  He was not there (οὐκ ἔστιν ὧδε).  This man told them to look (ἴδε) and see the place where Jesus had been laid out in the tomb (ὁ τόπος ὅπου ἔθηκαν αὐτόν).

Have mercy on me! (Mk 10:47-10:47

“When Bartimaeus

Heard that it was

Jesus of Nazareth,

He began to shout out.

He said.

‘Jesus!

Son of David!

Have mercy on me!’”

 

καὶ ἀκούσας ὅτι Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζαρηνός ἐστιν ἤρξατο κράζειν καὶ λέγειν Υἱὲ Δαυεὶδ Ἰησοῦ, ἐλέησόν με.

 

Both Matthew, chapter 20:30, and Luke, chapter 18:36-38, have something similar, but Matthew had two blind men instead of one as here.  Mark said that Bartimaeus heard that is was Jesus of Nazareth, (καὶ ἀκούσας ὅτι Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζαρηνός ἐστιν), not just anyone in general passing by.  Then he began to shout out (ἤρξατο κράζειν).  He said (καὶ λέγειν) that he wanted Jesus, the Son of David (Υἱὲ Δαυεὶδ Ἰησοῦ), to have mercy on him (ἐλέησον με).  He called Jesus the Son of David, not the Lord as in Matthew.

The man with the unclean spirit (Mk 1:23-1:24)

“Just then,

There was,

In their synagogue,

A man

With an unclean spirit.

He cried out.

‘What have you

To do with us?

Jesus of Nazareth!

Have you come

To destroy us?

I know

Who you are!

The Holy One of God!’”

 

Καὶ εὐθὺς ἦν ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ αὐτῶν ἄνθρωπος ἐν πνεύματι ἀκαθάρτῳ, καὶ ἀνέκραξεν

λέγων Τί ἡμῖν καὶ σοί, Ἰησοῦ Ναζαρηνέ; ἦλθες ἀπολέσαι ἡμᾶς. οἶδά σε τίς εἶ, ὁ Ἅγιος τοῦ Θεοῦ.

 

Matthew, chapter 8:29, has something similar, but it was not in a Capernaum synagogue, but in Gadarenes and it was 2 demonic spirits, not one as here.  Mark, chapter 5:7, as well as Luke, chapter 8;28 had these demoniacs speak to Jesus with somewhat similar words.  However, this is closer to Luke, chapter 4:33, where it is almost word for word.  Here Mark and Luke said that just then in their synagogue, (Καὶ εὐθὺς ἦν ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ αὐτῶν) a man with an unclean spirit (ἄνθρωπος ἐν πνεύματι ἀκαθάρτῳ,) cried out or shouted out to Jesus (καὶ ἀνέκραξεν).  He asked Jesus of Nazareth (Ἰησοῦ Ναζαρηνέ) what he had to do with them (λέγων Τί ἡμῖν καὶ σοί).  Had Jesus come to destroy or kill them (ἦλθες ἀπολέσαι ἡμᾶς)?  He said that he knew who he was (οἶδά σε τίς εἶ), the Holy One of God (ὁ Ἅγιος τοῦ Θεοῦ).  Matthew had them say that Jesus had come to torment them, not destroy them, since the time of the final judgment day had not arrived.  This unclean spirit world was alive and active in first century Israelite culture.  The term “Holy One of God” had been applied to the prophet Elisha in 2 Kings, chapter 4:9, as another name for a prophet, which was not as strong as the “Son of God,” a more powerful term.  Thus, the evil spirits were able to recognize Jesus of Nazareth as a special person.

Title

The Gospel according to Mark

τὸ κατὰ Μᾶρκον εὐαγγέλιον,

What is a gospel?  Who is Mark?  The musical play “Godspell” that opened on Broadway in 1971, was based on the Old English ‘godspel.’  Like the Greek word εὐαγγέλιον, this Germanic based word gospel means good news or good tidings.  This term originally meant the Christian message itself.  However, in the second century, it came to be used for the books where this message was set out.  Thus, the gospels became known as the written accounts of the life, actions, and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.  This Gospel of Mark is anonymous since there is no explicit mention of a named author within the text itself.  This title (Τὸ κατὰ Μᾶρκον εὐαγγέλιον), however was added some time in the second century, perhaps by Papias of Hierapolis (60–130 CE), an early bishop and apostolic father.  Traditionally, this work has been ascribed to John Mark, the companion of the apostle Peter, who may have transcribed the teachings of Simon Peter.  This John Mark was the son of a widow named Mary as indicated in Acts, chapter 12:12.  He also accompanied Paul and Barnabas on their missionary journeys, since he was also the cousin of Barnabas, as indicated in Colossians, chapter 4:10.  However, he  left Paul and Barnabas for some unknown reasons in Acts, chapter 13:13.  Today, most scholars agree that his anonymous Gospel of Mark was the first written gospel, probably written between 66–70 CE, during Emperor Nero’s persecution of the Christians in Rome or the Jewish revolt.  Thus, the authors of Matthew and Luke used Mark with a second document called the Q source.  This short Gospel of Mark was written for a gentile audience in a simple Greek style that is often called “street Greek.”  This Greek style is thus vivid and concrete showing a very active Jesus with less teaching or preaching.  Mark explained Jewish traditions and translated Aramaic terms for his Greek-speaking Christian audience who would not have understood them.  Some suggest Rome as the origin of this gospel since there are some Latin terms.  Others have suggested Antioch, the 3rd largest city in the Roman Empire.  This author may have been influenced by Greco-Roman writings, but all his references are from the Jewish Greek version of the Septuagint Bible or the Old Testament.