“I tell you!
None of those men
Who were invited
My dinner banquet.”’
λέγω γὰρ ὑμῖν ὅτι οὐδεὶς τῶν ἀνδρῶν ἐκείνων τῶν κεκλημένων γεύσεταί μου τοῦ δείπνου.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that this house owner told his slave (λέγω γὰρ ὑμῖν) that none of those men who were invited (ὅτι οὐδεὶς τῶν ἀνδρῶν ἐκείνων τῶν κεκλημένων) would taste his dinner banquet (γεύσεταί μου τοῦ δείπνου). Once again, this is similar to Matthew, chapter 22:8, where this king told his slaves (τότε λέγει τοῖς δούλοις αὐτοῦ) that the wedding feast was ready (Ὁ μὲν γάμος ἕτοιμός ἐστιν), but those originally invited were not worthy or deserving of his invitation (οἱ δὲ κεκλημένοι οὐκ ἦσαν ἄξιοι). In either case, those originally invited would not be able to eat at this banquet. Was this a hint about the originally invited Israelites? Notice the original chosen ones, the Israelites, were not considered worthy. Now the invitation went out to all people to come to the banquet feast of the son, Jesus. Have you turned down the invitation of Jesus?
“But they all alike
To make excuses.
The first said to him.
‘I have bought
A piece of land.
I must go out
To see it.
Accept my regrets!”
καὶ ἤρξαντο ἀπὸ μιᾶς πάντες παραιτεῖσθαι. ὁ πρῶτος εἶπεν αὐτῷ Ἀγρὸν ἠγόρασα, καὶ ἔχω ἀνάγκην ἐξελθὼν ἰδεῖν αὐτόν· ἐρωτῶ σε, ἔχε με παρῃτημένον.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that they all began to make excuses, to excuse themselves (καὶ ἤρξαντο ἀπὸ μιᾶς πάντες παραιτεῖσθαι). The first one said to the slave (ὁ πρῶτος εἶπεν αὐτῷ) that he had just bought a piece of land (Ἀγρὸν ἠγόρασα). Thus, he had to go out to see it (καὶ ἔχω ἀνάγκην ἐξελθὼν ἰδεῖν αὐτόν). Therefore, he politely (ἐρωτῶ σε) wanted to be excused from going to the banquet (ἔχε με παρῃτημένον). Matthew, chapter 22:3-5, said that they would not come or did not wish to come (καὶ οὐκ ἤθελον ἐλθεῖν), without giving excuses. Now, this was a problem. They have refused an invitation to the wedding banquet of God, the Father, the king. He had sent his slaves, the prophets or the apostles, to call them, but they still did not want to come to the wedding feast. In fact, Matthew said that the invitees made light of these inviting slaves. They disregarded or disrespected (οἱ δὲ ἀμελήσαντες) the invitation. They simply went on with their daily lives. They went (ἀπῆλθον) either to their own farm field (ὃς μὲν εἰς τὸν ἴδιον ἀγρόν), or to their trading business (ὃς δὲ ἐπὶ τὴν ἐμπορίαν αὐτοῦ). They were too busy to go to a wedding feast. Have you ever been too busy to go to a wedding reception?
To dine with him.
Jesus went in.
He took his place
Reclining at the table.”
Ἐν δὲ τῷ λαλῆσαι ἐρωτᾷ αὐτὸν Φαρισαῖος ὅπως ἀριστήσῃ παρ’ αὐτῷ· εἰσελθὼν δὲ ἀνέπεσεν
Luke uniquely indicated that while Jesus was speaking (Ἐν δὲ τῷ λαλῆσαι), a Pharisee invited Jesus (ἐρωτᾷ αὐτὸν Φαρισαῖος) to dine with him (ὅπως ἀριστήσῃ παρ’ αὐτῷ). Thus, Jesus went in and took his place reclining at the table (εἰσελθὼν δὲ ἀνέπεσεν). This is the second of 3 times that Jesus will uniquely have a dinner with a Pharisee, earlier in chapter 7:36 and later in chapter 14:1. Earlier Luke had said that one of the Pharisees asked Jesus to eat with him. Thus, Jesus went into the Pharisee’s house. He took his place reclining at the table. Then the sinful woman appeared. In each case, the Pharisees were watching Jesus very closely. However, he must have been on speaking terms with these Jewish leaders to get this invitation. Thus, the hostility with the Pharisees did not seem to be personal but rather theological or philosophical over their interpretation of the divine role in Jewish life. Matthew, chapter 15:1, and Mark, chapter 7:1, had a confrontation with the Pharisees and the Scribes who came to Jesus from Jerusalem. The Pharisees were a political party, a social movement, and a religious school of thought that became the basis for later Rabbinic Judaism. They had their own expert explanations of Jewish law that sometimes appeared to be hypocritical or arrogant, with the letter of the law above its spirit. They had a form of Judaism that extended beyond the Temple. These Pharisees in the New Testament continually engaged in conflicts with Jesus and his disciples. However, here it will be personal confrontation at a dinner party. Do you have dinner with people that you disagree with?
“One of the Pharisees
Into the Pharisee’s house.
He took his place
Reclining at the table.”
Ἠρώτα δέ τις αὐτὸν τῶν Φαρισαίων ἵνα φάγῃ μετ’ αὐτοῦ· καὶ εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ Φαρισαίου κατεκλίθη.
Luke uniquely said that one of the Pharisees asked Jesus (Ἠρώτα δέ τις αὐτὸν τῶν Φαρισαίων) to eat with him (ἵνα φάγῃ μετ’ αὐτοῦ). Thus, Jesus went into the Pharisee’s house (καὶ εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ Φαρισαίου). He took his place reclining at the table (κατεκλίθη). According to Luke, this is the 1st of 3 times that Jesus ate with a Pharisee, with the others coming later in chapter 11:37 and 14:1. In each case, the Pharisees were watching Jesus very closely. However, he must have been on speaking terms with these Jewish leaders to get this invitation. Thus, the hostility with the Pharisees did not seem to be personal but rather theological or philosophical over their interpretation of the divine role in Jewish life. Do you have philosophical differences with any of your friends?
“Blessed are you
Who are hungry now!
You shall be satisfied.”
μακάριοι οἱ πεινῶντες νῦν, ὅτι χορτασθήσεσθε.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that the hungry people now (οἱ πεινῶντες νῦν) would be blessed or happy (μακάριοι) and satisfied (ὅτι χορτασθήσεσθε), using the second person plural. This is somewhat equivalent to Matthew, chapter 5:6, perhaps indicating that these beatitudes may be from the Q source. There Matthew said the happy, blessed, and fortunate ones (μακάριοι) were those who hungered and thirsted for righteousness (οἱ πεινῶντες καὶ διψῶντες τὴν δικαιοσύνην). They would not go away empty handed. They would be satisfied or filled (ὅτι αὐτοὶ χορτασθήσοντ). Isaiah, chapter 55:1-2 had an invitation to those without money to come to drink and eat. They could have water, wine, milk and bread. They would enjoy themselves at this banquet. Matthew may have been referencing Psalm 107:4-9, where Yahweh had helped a small group of lost Israelites who were hungry and thirsty, while wandering in the desert. He satisfied their thirst and filled their hunger with good food. Thus, they gave thanks to Yahweh. So too, those who hungered and thirsted for righteousness, the right way of doing things, would be satisfied or filled with this righteousness. However, here Luke was talking about real hunger for food that would be satisfied. Luke is more concrete, less spiritual. You are poor and hungry, plain and simple. You would be blessed, fortunate, happy, and satisfied.
“When they had brought
They left everything.
They followed Jesus.”
καὶ καταγαγόντες τὰ πλοῖα ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν, ἀφέντες πάντα ἠκολούθησαν αὐτῷ.
Luke has a simple statement compared to Mark and Matthew. He said that when these fishermen had brought their boats to land (καὶ καταγαγόντες τὰ πλοῖα ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν), they left everything (ἀφέντες πάντα). They followed Jesus (ἠκολούθησαν αὐτῷ). This is like Mark, chapter 1:19-20, or Matthew, chapter 4:19-20. There Jesus said to them to come and follow after him, since he was going to make them fishers of human people. They immediately left their nets and followed or accompanied Jesus, like an Israelite prophetic call, since Jesus had spoken directly to these two men. He issued an invitation that seemed like a command at the same time. They followed after Jesus, no matter what. Like the Hebrew prophets, their response was immediate, without any hesitation. They left their fishing nets, as both Simon Peter and Andrew, his brother, became disciples of Jesus. The other two brothers, James and John left both their boat and also their father Zebedee. However, in Luke, there was no mention of Andrew, the brother of Simon, or any direct formal call to these fishermen. The results were the same. There were either 3 or 4 new full disciples of Jesus.
I will make you
Fish for people.’
They left their nets.
They followed him.”
καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς Δεῦτε ὀπίσω μου, καὶ ποιήσω ὑμᾶς γενέσθαι ἁλεεῖς ἀνθρώπων.
καὶ εὐθὺς ἀφέντες τὰ δίκτυα ἠκολούθησαν αὐτῷ.
Mark, like Matthew, chapter 4:19-20, almost word for word, indicated that Jesus wanted these two fishermen brothers to follow him. Jesus said to them (καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς) to come and follow after him (Δεῦτε ὀπίσω μου,), since he was going to make them fishers of human people (καὶ ποιήσω ὑμᾶς γενέσθαι ἁλεεῖς ἀνθρώπων). They immediately left their nets (καὶ εὐθὺς ἀφέντες τὰ δίκτυα) and followed or accompanied Jesus (ἠκολούθησαν αὐτῷ). They were no longer going to fish for marine life, but human life. This was a like an Israelite prophetic call, since Jesus spoke directly to these two men. He issued an invitation that seemed like a command at the same time. They were to follow after him, no matter what. They were to be on the hunt for humans, and not fish. Like the Hebrew prophets, their response was immediate, without any hesitation. They left their fishing nets, as they began to follow Jesus. Thus, Simon and Andrew, the fishing brothers of Galilee, became the first two disciples of Jesus. John, chapter 1:35-42, may shed further light on these two disciples of Jesus, since he indicated that Andrew and Simon were disciples of John the Baptist when Jesus came to John. Then they became disciples of Jesus.