Luke is the only synoptic writer with this parable about the widow and the judge to emphasize the importance of prayer. Right from the beginning, he had Jesus tell them the purpose of the parable, rather than a secret that they would have to figure out. Then Jesus told them a parable (Ἔλεγεν δὲ παραβολὴν αὐτοῖς) about the need or duty to always pray (πρὸς τὸ δεῖν πάντοτε προσεύχεσθαι αὐτοὺς). They were not to lose heart or grow weary (καὶ μὴ ἐνκακεῖν). Do you remember to always pray?
Luke indicated that Jesus told another unique story about a king (Ἢ τίς βασιλεὺς), who was planning to go to wage war (συμβαλεῖν εἰς πόλεμον) against another king (πορευόμενος ἑτέρῳ βασιλεῖ). Would he not first sit down (οὐχὶ καθίσας πρῶτον) and consider or take counsel (βουλεύσεται) whether he was able (εἰ δυνατός ἐστιν) with ten thousand troops (ἐν δέκα χιλιάσιν) to oppose the other king who came (ὑπαντῆσαι) against him with twenty thousand troops (τῷ μετὰ εἴκοσι χιλιάδων ἐρχομένῳ ἐπ’ αὐτόν)? Once again, Jesus was pointing out the importance of planning before any action. Are you a good planner?
This warning at the end of the sower parable can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels, in Matthew, chapter 13:8, Mark, chapter 4:9, and here. Luke ended this parable by having Jesus call out (ταῦτα λέγων ἐφώνει). Anyone with ears to hear (Ὁ ἔχων ὦτα ἀκούειν), should listen (ἀκουέτω) to this parable, the same in all 3 gospel stories. Jesus warned them. He often mentioned the importance of hearing and listening to what he was saying. Are you a good listener?
Luke has a unique statement about everybody being baptized by John the Baptist. He said that all the people who heard John (καὶ πᾶς ὁ λαὸς ἀκούσας), even including the tax collectors (καὶ οἱ τελῶναι), acknowledged the justice of God (ἐδικαίωσαν τὸν Θεόν). They had been baptized with John’s baptism (βαπτισθέντες τὸ βάπτισμα Ἰωάνου). Jesus noted that even the tax collectors listened to John the Baptist and recognized the justice or righteousness of God. This saying of Luke indicated the importance and reach of John the Baptist and his baptism. Do you as a sinner recognize the value of Baptism?
This Jesus saying about faith can be found in Matthew, chapter 21:21, somewhat similar to this in Mark. Mark said that Jesus answered with a solemn pronouncement (ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν) about the importance of faith. If they had faith, they could move mountains. They could tell a mountain (ὅτι ὃς ἂν εἴπῃ τῷ ὄρει τούτῳ) to be lifted up or taken away (Ἄρθητι) and thrown into the sea (καὶ βλήθητι εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν). If they did not doubt it in their hearts (καὶ μὴ διακριθῇ ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτοῦ), but believed what they said (ἀλλὰ πιστεύῃ ὅτι ὃ λαλεῖ γίνεται), it would happen or take place or come to pass for them (ἔσται αὐτῷ).
This concluding statement of Jesus points to the importance and indissolubility of marriage. Matthew, chapter 19:6, has this exact same statement word for word. The conclusion was that what God has joined together (ὃ οὖν ὁ Θεὸς συνέζευξεν), let no one separate them (ἄνθρωπος μὴ χωριζέτω). Obviously, this saying is also often used in marriage ceremonies.
ἕνεκεν τούτου καταλείψει ἄνθρωπος τὸν πατέρα αὐτοῦ καὶ τὴν μητέρα,
καὶ ἔσονται οἱ δύο εἰς σάρκα μίαν· ὥστε οὐκέτι εἰσὶν δύο ἀλλὰ μία σάρξ.
This saying of Jesus that points to the importance and indissolubility of marriage can also be found in Matthew, chapter 19:4-6. Mark indicates that Jesus used the creation story of Genesis, chapters 1:27 and 2:24, to emphasize his point. He noted that from the beginning of creation (ἀπὸ δὲ ἀρχῆς κτίσεως) God had made humans male and female (ἄρσεν καὶ θῆλυ ἐποίησεν αὐτοὺς). At the pinnacle of creation, God created humans in his image, as both men and women were created equal in God’s image. Jesus continued that a man leaves his father and mother (ἕνεκεν τούτου καταλείψει ἄνθρωπος τὸν πατέρα αὐτοῦ καὶ τὴν μητέρα). Some Orthodox texts have the phrase about being joined to his wife (καὶ προσκολληθήσεται πρὸς τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ). The two of them then will become one flesh (καὶ ἔσονται οἱ δύο εἰς σάρκα μίαν), so that they are no longer two but one flesh (ὥστε οὐκέτι εἰσὶν δύο ἀλλὰ μία σὰρξ). Obviously, this has become part of many marriage ceremonial rituals.
This verse is found only in some orthodox manuscripts because it is an exact repeat of what was said earlier in chapter 4:9 and 4:23. However, this warning was in all 3 synoptic gospels, in Matthew, chapter 13:8, and in Luke, chapter 8:8, and here. Jesus warned that anyone with ears to hear should listen (εἴ τις ὦτα ἀκούειν ἀκουέτω). Jesus often mentioned the importance of hearing and listening, something all of us should take heed.
Mark has a long descriptive story about this birthday party of Herod. Matthew, chapter 14:6-12, has a more summary statement about this party, while Luke made no mention of it. Mark explained about the guests at this birthday party. He said that an opportunity arose for a festival day (Καὶ γενομένης ἡμέρας εὐκαίρου) on the celebration of King Herod’s birthday (ὅτε Ἡρῴδης τοῖς γενεσίοις αὐτοῦ). King Herod gave a banquet dinner (δεῖπνον ἐποίησεν) for his courtiers or noblemen (τοῖς μεγιστᾶσιν αὐτοῦ), his military officers or captains (καὶ τοῖς χιλιάρχοις), and the other prominent leaders of Galilee (καὶ τοῖς πρώτοις τῆς Γαλιλαίας). Anybody who was of any importance in Galilee would have been there, since Herod was the tetrarch or so-called king of Galilee, under Roman rule.
This explanation of the importance of parables is similar to Matthew, chapter 13:34. Jesus, via Mark, presented the word (ἐλάλει αὐτοῖς τὸν λόγον), using many parables (Καὶ τοιαύταις παραβολαῖς πολλαῖς) so that they were able to hear them (καθὼς ἠδύναντο ἀκούειν). In fact, he told hem nothing that was not a parable (χωρὶς δὲ παραβολῆς οὐκ ἐλάλει αὐτοῖς). He only spoke in parables. However, he explained everything in private for his disciples (κατ’ ἰδίαν δὲ τοῖς ἰδίοις μαθηταῖς ἐπέλυεν πάντα). Both Mark and Matthew underlined the role of parables in their gospel stories. Matthew, chapter 13:35, uniquely cited a prophecy from Psalm 78:2, that Mark had not mentioned. Jesus was going to open his mouth in parables about the old-fashioned sayings, like the wisdom writers. The parables were a way of conveying wisdom, with only the initiated, his disciples, able to understand them.