The cry of Jesus (Mt 27:46-27:46)

“About three o’clock,

The ninth hour,

Jesus cried

With a loud voice.

‘Eli!

Eli!

Lema sabachthani?’

That means.

‘My God!

My God!

Why have you

Forsaken me?’”

 

περὶ δὲ τὴν ἐνάτην ὥραν ἀνεβόησεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς φωνῇ μεγάλῃ λέγων Ἡλεὶ λεμὰ σαβαχθανεί; τοῦτ’ ἔστιν Θεέ μου θεέ μου, ἵνα τί με ἐγκατέλιπες;

 

This is almost word for word in Mark, chapter 15:34.  Luke, chapter 23, and John, chapter 19, do not have these words of Jesus hanging on the cross.  Matthew said that about three o’clock in the afternoon, the ninth hour (περὶ δὲ τὴν ἐνάτην ὥραν), Jesus cried with a loud voice saying (ἀνεβόησεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς φωνῇ μεγάλῃ λέγων) “Eli!  Eli!  Lema sabachthani (Ἡλεὶ Ἡλεὶ λεμὰ σαβαχθανεί)?”  Then Matthew explained what this meant (τοῦτ’ ἔστιν).  This was a mixture of Hebrew and Aramaic, the Hebrew for God and Aramaic for the first verse from Psalm 22:1.  “My God!  My God (Θεέ μου θεέ μου,)!  Why have you forsaken, abandoned, or deserted me (ἵνα τί με ἐγκατέλιπες)?”  This Psalm 22 was a psalm of David asking for help or deliverance from a serious illness or persecution, much like the suffering servant in Isaiah, chapters 52-53.  Thus, Jesus, the suffering servant son of David, quoted the first verse of this psalm as he hung on the cross.  Why was there no help coming from God?

Darkness over the land (Mt 27:45-27:45)

“Now from noon on,

The sixth hour,

Darkness

Came over

The whole land

Until three

In the afternoon,

The ninth hour.”

 

Ἀπὸ δὲ ἕκτης ὥρας σκότος ἐγένετο ἐπὶ πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν ἕως ὥρας ἐνάτης.

 

This is almost word for word in Mark, chapter 15:33, and in Luke, chapter 23:44, while in John, chapter 19, there is no indication about this darkness.  Now from noon on, the sixth hour (Ἀπὸ δὲ ἕκτης ὥρας), darkness came (σκότος ἐγένετο) over the whole land, the whole region, or the whole country (ἐπὶ πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν), until three in the afternoon, the ninth hour (ἕως ὥρας ἐνάτης).  There was some kind of darkness over the whole region, country, or area for about 3 hours, while Jesus was hanging on the cross.  All 3 of the synoptic gospel writers mentioned this, but John did not.

The disciples flee (Mt 26:55-26:56)

“At that hour,

Jesus said

To the crowds.

‘Have you come out

With swords

And clubs

To arrest me

As though

I was a bandit?

Day after day,

I sat in the Temple

Teaching.

You did not arrest me.

But all this has taken place

That the scriptures

Of the prophets

Might be fulfilled.’

Then all the disciples

Deserted him.

They fled.”

 

Ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ εἶπεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς τοῖς ὄχλοις Ὡς ἐπὶ λῃστὴν ἐξήλθατε μετὰ μαχαιρῶν καὶ ξύλων συλλαβεῖν με; καθ’ ἡμέραν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ ἐκαθεζόμην διδάσκων, καὶ οὐκ ἐκρατήσατέ με.

Τοῦτο δὲ ὅλον γέγονεν ἵνα πληρωθῶσιν αἱ γραφαὶ τῶν προφητῶν. Τότε οἱ μαθηταὶ πάντες ἀφέντες αὐτὸν ἔφυγον.

 

This is almost word for word in Mark, chapter 14:48-50.  In Luke, chapter 22:52-53, there is something similar, while John, chapter 18, does not have anything like this.  Matthew recounted that at that hour (Ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ), Jesus spoke to the crowds (εἶπεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς τοῖς ὄχλοις), as he normally did.  Why had they come out with swords and clubs to capture or arrest him (ἐξήλθατε μετὰ μαχαιρῶν καὶ ξύλων συλλαβεῖν με), as though he was a bandit or robber (Ὡς ἐπὶ λῃστὴν)?  Day after day or every day, he had sat in the Temple teaching (καθ’ ἡμέραν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ ἐκαθεζόμην διδάσκων), but they did not seize or arrest him (καὶ οὐκ ἐκρατήσατέ με).  All this took place or happened (Τοῦτο δὲ ὅλον γέγονεν) so that the scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled (ἵνα πληρωθῶσιν αἱ γραφαὶ τῶν προφητῶν).  Once again, there was no indication of which scriptural prophets he was referring to.  Then all the disciples deserted him as they escaped or fled from Jesus (Τότε οἱ μαθηταὶ πάντες ἀφέντες αὐτὸν ἔφυγον).

 

The sleeping apostles (Mt 26:40-26:41)

“Then Jesus came

To the disciples.

He found them sleeping.

He said to Peter.

‘So!

Could you not

Stay awake

With me

One hour?

Stay awake!

Pray

That you may not come

Into the time

Of temptation!

The spirit indeed

Is willing,

But the flesh

Is weak.’”

 

καὶ ἔρχεται πρὸς τοὺς μαθητὰς καὶ εὑρίσκει αὐτοὺς καθεύδοντας, καὶ λέγει τῷ Πέτρῳ Οὕτως οὐκ ἰσχύσατε μίαν ὥραν γρηγορῆσαι μετ’ ἐμοῦ;

γρηγορεῖτε καὶ προσεύχεσθε, ἵνα μὴ εἰσέλθητε εἰς πειρασμόν· τὸ μὲν πνεῦμα πρόθυμον, ἡ δὲ σὰρξ ἀσθενής.

 

This is almost word for word in Mark, chapter 14:37-38, but Mark calls Peter Simon.  Luke, chapter 22:45-46, is somewhat similar, but without the last phrase, while in John, chapter 22, there are no indications of this action in the garden.  Both Mark and Matthew recounted that Jesus came to the 3 special disciples (καὶ ἔρχεται πρὸς τοὺς μαθητὰς), where he found them sleeping (καὶ εὑρίσκει αὐτοὺς καθεύδοντας).  Then he complained to Peter (καὶ λέγει τῷ Πέτρῳ) that he could not even stay awake or watch with him for merely one hour (Οὕτως οὐκ ἰσχύσατε μίαν ὥραν γρηγορῆσαι μετ’ ἐμοῦ).  He told him and the other 2 disciples to stay awake, watch, and be vigilant (γρηγορεῖτε).  They should pray (καὶ προσεύχεσθε) that their time of temptation or trial did not come (ἵνα μὴ εἰσέλθητε εἰς πειρασμόν).  Then Jesus remarked that the spirit indeed was willing (τὸ μὲν πνεῦμα πρόθυμον), but the flesh was weak (ἡ δὲ σὰρξ ἀσθενής).  Jesus was reprimanding Peter and the other 2 disciples in a mild but firm way.  They needed to be vigilant.

No one knows the day (Mt 24:36-24:36)

“But about that day

And that hour,

No one knows.

Not even the angels

In heaven,

Nor the Son,

But only the Father knows.”

 

Περὶ δὲ τῆς ἡμέρας ἐκείνης καὶ ὥρας οὐδεὶς οἶδεν, οὐδὲ οἱ ἄγγελοι τῶν οὐρανῶν οὐδὲ ὁ Υἱός, εἰ μὴ ὁ Πατὴρ μόνος.

 

This is exactly the same, word for word, in Mark, chapter 13:32, but not in Luke.  Interesting enough, Jesus said that no one would know the day or the hour (Περὶ δὲ τῆς ἡμέρας ἐκείνης καὶ ὥρας οὐδεὶς οἶδεν) of the end times.  Jesus emphasized that not even the angels in heaven (οὐδὲ οἱ ἄγγελοι τῶν οὐρανῶν) or the Son (οὐδὲ ὁ Υἱός) knew when this was going to happen.  Only the Father knew this (, εἰ μὴ ὁ Πατὴρ μόνος).  This was such a big secret that no one knew when it was going to happen, since only the Father knew the exact day and time.  Thus, not even the Son knew this was going to take place.  Thus, there is another instance of the Son being subordinate to the Father.

The last hired paid first (Mt 20:9-20:9)

“When those hired

At five o’clock,

The eleventh hour,

Came,

Each of them received

One denarius.”

 

ἐλθόντες δὲ οἱ περὶ τὴν ἑνδεκάτην ὥραν ἔλαβον ἀνὰ δηνάριον.

 

This parable is unique to Matthew.  Jesus said that those hired last at 5:00 PM, the eleventh hour (ἐλθόντες δὲ οἱ περὶ τὴν ἑνδεκάτην ὥραν), got paid first.  Each of them received one denarius (ἔλαβον ἀνὰ δηνάριον), the Roman silver coin worth about 15 cents.  This was the usual day’s pay amount that the original day laborers had agreed to when they started at 6:00 AM in the morning.  However, they had worked 11 hours more than these later day laborers who had only worked one hour.

The third and fourth group of laborers (Mt 20:5-20:5)

“When the landowner

Went out again

About noon,

The sixth hour,

And about three o’clock,

The ninth hour,

He did the same.”

 

πάλιν δὲ ἐξελθὼν περὶ ἕκτην καὶ ἐνάτην ὥραν ἐποίησεν ὡσαύτως.

 

Jesus continued with this parable that is unique to Matthew.  This landowner needed more workers so that every 3 hours, he went into the marketplace to see if there were any day workers available.  Thus, this landowner of the vineyards went out again (πάλιν δὲ ἐξελθὼν) about noon, the sixth hour (περὶ ἕκτην), and about 3:00 PM, the ninth hour (καὶ ἐνάτην ὥραν).  He did the same (ἐποίησεν ὡσαύτως) as he had done at the third hour or 9 AM.  He asked them to work in the vineyard and he would pay them whatever was right, fair or just, without a specific agreed wage.

The second group of laborers (Mt 20:3-20:4)

“When the landowner

Went out

About nine o’clock,

The third hour,

He saw others standing idle

In the market place.

He said to them.

‘You also go

Into the vineyard.

I will pay you

Whatever is right.’

Thus,

They went out

To the vineyard.”

 

καὶ ἐξελθὼν περὶ τρίτην ὥραν εἶδεν ἄλλους ἑστῶτας ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ ἀργούς,

καὶ ἐκείνοις εἶπεν Ὑπάγετε καὶ ὑμεῖς εἰς τὸν ἀμπελῶνα, καὶ ὃ ἐὰν ᾖ δίκαιον δώσω ὑμῖν.

οἱ δὲ ἀπῆλθον.

 

This parable is unique to Matthew.  Jesus continued with this parable.  About 9 AM, the third hour (καὶ ἐξελθὼν περὶ τρίτην ὥραν), this land owner saw other people standing around idle in the market place (εἶδεν ἄλλους ἑστῶτας ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ ἀργούς).  He asked them if they wanted to work in his vineyard (καὶ ἐκείνοις εἶπεν Ὑπάγετε καὶ ὑμεῖς εἰς τὸν ἀμπελῶνα).  He did not promise them a specific wage for the day.  He simply said that he would pay them whatever was right, just, or fair (καὶ ὃ ἐὰν ᾖ δίκαιον δώσω ὑμῖν).  Some of them agreed and went out (οἱ δὲ ἀπῆλθον) into the vineyard fields to pick the grapes.

The disciples complain about the crowds (Mt 14:15-14:15)

“When it was evening,

The disciples came to him.

They said.

‘This is a deserted place.

The hour is now late.

Send the crowds away

So that they may

Go into the villages.

They can buy food

For themselves’”

 

ὀψίας δὲ γενομένης προσῆλθον αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ λέγοντες Ἔρημός ἐστιν ὁ τόπος καὶ ἡ ὥρα ἤδη παρῆλθεν· ἀπόλυσον οὖν τοὺς ὄχλους, ἵνα ἀπελθόντες εἰς τὰς κώμας ἀγοράσωσιν ἑαυτοῖς βρώματα.

 

This is an indication about the crowds needing to eat in all four gospels, Mark, chapter 6:35-36, Luke, chapter 9:12-13, and John, chapter 6:5, plus here.  The disciples wanted to send the crowds home.  After all, there were no fast food places to get something to eat.  However, there were some places in the near by villages where you could buy some food.  When it was evening (ὀψίας δὲ γενομένης), the disciples came to Jesus (προσῆλθον αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ).  They told him that there were in a deserted place (λέγοντες Ἔρημός ἐστιν ὁ τόπος).  Besides the hour was late (καὶ ἡ ὥρα ἤδη παρῆλθεν).  They wanted to send the crowds away (ἀπόλυσον οὖν τοὺς ὄχλους) so that they could go into the nearby villages (ἵνα ἀπελθόντες εἰς τὰς κώμας) to buy food for themselves (ἵνα ἀπελθόντες εἰς τὰς κώμας).  This seemed like a good plan.