Daily bread (Lk 11:3-11:3)

“Give us

Our daily bread

Each day!

 

τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δίδου ἡμῖν τὸ καθ’ ἡμέραν·

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said to the Father to give us (δίδου ἡμῖν) our daily bread (τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον) each day (τὸ καθ’ ἡμέραν).  In the second part of the “Lord’s Prayer,” “The Our Father,” Matthew, chapter 6:11, and Luke, had 4 human petitions, perhaps indicating a common Q source.  We should ask the Father to give us (δὸς ἡμῖν) our daily bread or sustenance to sustain our human life (Τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον) today (σήμερον).  Every day, even today, we need our daily nutrition to live.  The hope is that God the Father will provide for us.  The Father will provide our daily nutritional needs, since we are dependant upon him.  Do you thank God for your daily bread?

Lending money (Lk 6:34-6:34)

“If you lend

To those from whom

You hope

To receive,

What credit is that

To you?

Even sinners

Lend to sinners,

To receive

As much again.”

 

καὶ ἐὰν δανίσητε παρ’ ὧν ἐλπίζετε λαβεῖν, ποία ὑμῖν χάρις ἐστίν; καὶ ἁμαρτωλοὶ ἁμαρτωλοῖς δανίζουσιν ἵνα ἀπολάβωσιν τὰ ἴσα.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus continued that if they lent money (καὶ ἐὰν δανίσητε παρ’) to those from whom they hoped to receive it back (παρ’ ὧν ἐλπίζετε λαβεῖν), what credit or gift was that to them (ποία ὑμῖν χάρις ἐστίν).  Even sinners lend to sinners (καὶ ἁμαρτωλοὶ ἁμαρτωλοῖς δανίζουσιν), to receive as much back again (ἵνα ἀπολάβωσιν τὰ ἴσα).  Matthew, chapter 5:42, had something similar about lending money.  If someone wished to borrow money from them, they should not refuse them or turn them away.  These were tough difficult recommendations, but actually based on the Torah.  People were expected to give charity and at the same time offer interest free loans.  How generous are you with your money?

Peace (Lk 1:79-1:79)

“God will give light

To those who

Sit in darkness.

He will give light

To those who

Sit in the shadow

Of death.

He will

Guide our feet

Into the way

Of peace.”

 

ἐπιφᾶναι τοῖς ἐν σκότει καὶ σκιᾷ θανάτου καθημένοις, τοῦ κατευθῦναι τοὺς πόδας ἡμῶν εἰς ὁδὸν εἰρήνης.

 

Luke concluded Zechariah’s canticle with a call to peace for all Israelites.  Zechariah said that God would give light or shine upon those who sat in darkness (ἐπιφᾶναι τοῖς ἐν σκότει).  He would also give light to those who sat in the shadow of death (καὶ σκιᾷ θανάτου καθημένοις).  He would guide their feet (τοῦ κατευθῦναι τοὺς πόδας ἡμῶν) into the way of peace (εἰς ὁδὸν εἰρήνης).  Once again, returning to prophetic expectations, Zechariah said that things would be good for those living in darkness or the shadow of death.  Hope or the messiah would come so that they would have the lasting peace that they so desired.

 

Description of the servant of Yahweh (Matt 12:19-12:21)

“He will not quarrel.

He will not cry aloud.

They will not hear his voice

In the streets.

He will not break

A bruised reed.

He will not quench

A smoldering wick,

Until he brings justice to victory.

In his name,

The gentiles will hope.”

 

οὐκ ἐρίσει οὐδὲ κραυγάσει, οὐδὲ ἀκούσει τις ἐν ταῖς πλατείαις τὴν φωνὴν αὐτοῦ.

κάλαμον συντετριμμένον οὐ κατεάξει καὶ λίνον τυφόμενον οὐ σβέσει, ἕως ἂν ἐκβάλῃ εἰς νῖκος τὴν κρίσιν.

καὶ τῷ ὀνόματι αὐτοῦ ἔθνη ἐλπιοῦσιν.

 

Second Isaiah, chapter 42:2-4, described this servant of Yahweh.  He would not cry nor lift up his voice in the streets.  He would not break the bruised reeds nor put out a dimly burning wick on a candle.  In other words, he would be a very quiet person.  However, he would fight for justice.  He would not be faint or crushed, until he has established justice on the whole earth.  Matthew clearly applied this description to Jesus since Jesus would not quarrel or be contentious (οὐκ ἐρίσει).  Jesus would not cry out or shout (οὐδὲ κραυγάσει).  They would not hear Jesus’ voice in the streets (οὐδὲ ἀκούσει τις ἐν ταῖς πλατείαις τὴν φωνὴν αὐτοῦ).  Jesus would not break a bruised reed into pieces (κάλαμον συντετριμμένον οὐ κατεάξει).  Jesus would not quench a smoldering wick on a candle (καὶ λίνον τυφόμενον οὐ σβέσει).  Jesus would bring justice to victory (ἕως ἂν ἐκβάλῃ εἰς νῖκος τὴν κρίσιν).  In the name of Jesus (καὶ τῷ ὀνόματι αὐτοῦ), the gentile nations would hope (ἔθνη ἐλπιοῦσιν).  There was no doubt in the mind of Matthew that Jesus was the servant of Yahweh from Isaiah.

The second part of the Lord’s prayer (Mt 6:11-6:13)

“Give us

Our daily bread

Today!

Forgive us

Our debts!

We also have forgiven

Our debtors.

Do not bring us

Into the time of trial!

Rescue us

From the evil one!

 

Τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον

καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·

καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.

 

In the second part of the “Lord’s Prayer,” “The Our Father,” Matthew and Luke, chapter 11:3-4, have the 4 human petitions, perhaps indicating a common Q source.  We should ask the Father to give us (δὸς ἡμῖν) our daily bread or sustenance to sustain our human life (Τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον) today (σήμερον).  Every day, even today, we need our daily nutrition to live.  The hope is that God the Father will provide for us.  We should ask the Father to forgive our debts (καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν).  This includes whatever we owe to God, because our sins that have put us in debt with God.  If we ask for forgiveness, that assumes that we have forgiven our debtors (ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν).  We ask the Father not to lead us into temptation or be tested in a trial (καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν).  Finally, we ask the Father to rescue or deliver us from painful evil or the evil one (ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ).  A Byzantine manuscript has an addition here that has become popular as the ending of the Lord’s Prayer because it has an “Amen” at the end of it.  “For the kingdom (Ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία) and the power (καὶ ἡ δύναμις) and the glory (καὶ ἡ δόξα) are yours forever. Amen (εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. Ἀμήν).”  This would have fit in better after the first 3 petitions about God the Father, since these 4 petitions are about us here on earth.

Restoration of the people of Israel (Am 9:13-9:15)

“Says Yahweh.

‘The time is surely coming

When the one who plows

Shall overtake

The one who reaps.

When the one who treads grapes

Shall overtake

The one who sows the seed.

The mountains shall drip

Sweet wine.

All the hills

Shall flow with it.

I will restore

The fortunes

Of my people Israel.

They shall rebuild

The ruined cities.

They shall

Inhabit them.

They shall

Plant vineyards.

They shall

Drink their wine.

They shall

Make gardens.

They shall

Eat their fruit.

I will plant them

Upon their land.

They shall never again

Be plucked up

Out of the land

That I have given them.’

Says Yahweh

Your God.”

This later oracle of Yahweh assumed that the Israelites had been taken from their land in captivity.  However, in this restoration, those plowing would be greater than those reaping.  Those who treaded the grapes would be more than those sowing the seeds.  There would be abundance and hope all around.  The mountains and hills would drip and flow with abundant sweet wine.  The Israelites would have their fortunes restored, so that they would rebuild their cities and inhabit them.  They would plant vineyards and drink wine.  They would plant gardens with lots of fruit.  These Israelites would be planted on their own land, never to be plucked away again.

They will faint from the lack of the word of Yahweh (Am 8:13-8:14)

“In that day,

The beautiful young women

With the young men

Shall faint for thirst.

Those who swear

By Ashimah

Of Samaria,

Will say,

‘As your god lives,

O Dan!’

‘As the way of Beer-sheba

Lives.’

They shall fall,

But never rise again.”

Amos reminded them that on the day of Yahweh, the good looking young men and women would faint from thirst.  Their hope from their local gods would be useless, whether it was Ashimah in Samaria, the far northern territory of Dan or the far southern place of Beer-sheba.  They would all fall, never to rise again.

Assyria will not save Israel (Hos 14:3-14:3)

“Assyria shall not

Save us.

We will not ride

Upon horses.

We will say no more.

‘Our God,’

To the work

Of our hands.

In you,

The orphan finds mercy.”

There was no hope in trying to form alliances with other countries. Assyria would not save them. They would not be able to ride horses. They no longer could call upon God to help them with the work of their own hands. The orphan would only find mercy in God alone.

Return to Yahweh (Hos 14:1-14:2)

“O Israel!

Return

To Yahweh!

Your God!

You have stumbled

Because of your iniquity.

Take words with you!

Return

To Yahweh!

Say to him!

‘Take away all guilt!

Accept that which is good!

We will offer

The fruit of our lips.’”

Hosea remined them that there was still hope. If they returned to Yahweh, their God, there might be a chance. They had stumbled because of their iniquity. They had to take back their own words. They had to return to Yahweh. They should ask God to take away all their guilt. They should have a change of heart. They should change the words that they say. They should be more careful in how they talk.

The opening of the graves (Ezek 37:12-37:14)

“Therefore,

Prophesy!

Say to them!

Thus says Yahweh God!

‘I am going to

Open your graves.

I will bring you up

From your graves.

O my people!

I will bring you back

Into the land of Israel.

You shall know

That I am Yahweh,

When I open your graves.

I will bring you up

From your graves.

O my people!

I will put

My Spirit

Within you.

You shall live.

I will place you

On your own soil.

Then you shall know

That I,

Yahweh,

Have spoken.

I have done it.’

Says Yahweh.”

Yahweh, via Ezekiel tried to bring hope to the captured Israelites. He told Ezekiel to tell them that Yahweh, their God, was going to open up their graves and bring them back from the grave. Is this an indication of a personal resurrection? He was going to bring them back to life to live in the land of Israel, on their own soil. Yahweh then repeated himself. Then his people would know that he put his Spirit in them. They would finally realize that Yahweh had spoken and done this.