Satan divided (Lk 11:18-11:18)

“If Satan

Also is divided

Against himself,

How will his kingdom stand?

You say

That I cast out the demons

By Beelzebul.”

 

εἰ δὲ καὶ ὁ Σατανᾶς ἐφ’ ἑαυτὸν διεμερίσθη, πῶς σταθήσεται ἡ βασιλεία αὐτοῦ; ὅτι λέγετε ἐν Βεελζεβοὺλ ἐκβάλλειν με τὰ δαιμόνια.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that if Satan was divided against himself (εἰ δὲ καὶ ὁ Σατανᾶς ἐφ’ ἑαυτὸν διεμερίσθη), how would his kingdom stand (πῶς σταθήσεται ἡ βασιλεία αὐτοῦ)?  They were saying (ὅτι λέγετε) that he was casting out demons (ἐκβάλλειν με τὰ δαιμόνια) by Beelzebul (ἐν Βεελζεβοὺλ).  Notice that the term used for the devil is now Satan, not Beelzebul.  Satan was the more familiar Hebrew term that considered the devil as a fallen angel.  There were similar statements in Matthew, chapter 12:26, and Mark, chapter 3:26.  Mark asked how was Satan able to cast out Satan?  If Satan has risen up against himself, he was divided.  He would not be able to last or stand, because the end of Satan has come.  Matthew also stated that if Satan was casting out Satan, then he was divided against himself.  How can his kingdom last?  These were legitimate concerns.  How was this divided kingdom of Satan and Beelzebul going to continue?  What do you about all this talk about the devil, demons, Satan, and Beelzebul?

No home for Jesus (Lk 9:58-9:58)

“Jesus said to him.

‘Foxes have holes.

Birds of the air

Have nests.

But the Son of Man

Has nowhere

To lay his head.’”

 

καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς Αἱ ἀλώπεκες φωλεοὺς ἔχουσιν καὶ τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ κατασκηνώσεις, ὁ δὲ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου οὐκ ἔχει ποῦ τὴν κεφαλὴν κλίνῃ.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus responded to this man (καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς) who wanted to follow him.  He said to him that foxes have their holes (Αἱ ἀλώπεκες φωλεοὺς ἔχουσιν).  Birds of the air have their nests (καὶ τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ κατασκηνώσεις).  But the Son of Man (ὁ δὲ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) has nowhere to lay his head (οὐκ ἔχει ποῦ τὴν κεφαλὴν κλίνῃ).  He was homeless.  This saying of Jesus is exactly the same in Matthew, chapter 8:20, indicating a possible Q source.  Matthew indicated that Jesus responded to this Scribe by telling him that he was homeless.  Foxes had foxholes.  Birds of the air had nests.  However, the Son of Man had nowhere to put his head.  The term “Son of Man” expression might be based on the Book of Daniel, chapter 7:13.  This Son of Man was given dominion, glory and kingship over all people, nations, and languages.  Everyone would serve him, since his kingdom would last forever, and never be destroyed.  This has been often interpreted as the coming of the Messiah, the savior.  Jesus and his disciples clearly used this term.  However, in the Book of Ezekiel, Yahweh used this term for Ezekiel.  So that, the “Son of Man” may also mean that Jesus was trying to point out his humanity, like everyone else.  Jesus continued to refer to himself in the 3rd person as the Son of Man.  Here Jesus had less than foxes or birds, since he had no permanent home on earth.  Have you ever been homeless?

The Son of Man in his kingdom will come soon (Mt 16:27-16:28)

“The Son of Man

Is to come

In the glory

Of his Father,

With his angels.

Then he will repay

Everyone

For what has been done.

Truly!

I say to you!

There are some standing here

Who will not taste death

Before they see

The Son of Man

Coming in his kingdom.”

 

μέλλει γὰρ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἔρχεσθαι ἐν τῇ δόξῃ τοῦ Πατρὸς αὐτοῦ μετὰ τῶν ἀγγέλων αὐτοῦ, καὶ τότε ἀποδώσει ἑκάστῳ κατὰ τὴν πρᾶξιν αὐτοῦ.

ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι εἰσίν τινες τῶν ὧδε ἑστώτων οἵτινες οὐ μὴ γεύσωνται θανάτου ἕως ἂν ἴδωσιν τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐρχόμενον ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ αὐτοῦ.

 

Jesus said that the judgment end times was coming soon.  Something similar can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels, Mark, chapter 9:1, Luke, chapter 9:27, and here, almost word for word, especially the second verse.  Jesus said that the Son of Man was going to come (μέλλει γὰρ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἔρχεσθαι) in the glory of his Father (ἐν τῇ δόξῃ τοῦ Πατρὸς αὐτοῦ), with his angels (μετὰ τῶν ἀγγέλων αὐτοῦ), a clear indication of the end times.  Then the Son of Man would repay or judge everyone for what they had done (καὶ τότε ἀποδώσει ἑκάστῳ κατὰ τὴν πρᾶξιν αὐτοῦ), the judgment day.  Then in a solemn pronouncement (ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν) Jesus said that some of those standing before him would not experience or taste death (ὅτι εἰσίν τινες τῶν ὧδε ἑστώτων οἵτινες οὐ μὴ γεύσωνται θανάτου) before they would see the Son of Man coming in his kingdom (ἕως ἂν ἴδωσιν τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐρχόμενον ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ αὐτοῦ).  The end times or judgment was imminent, not some far away time.

Punishment for the weeds at the harvest end times (Mt 13:41-13:42)

“The Son of Man

Will send his angels.

They will collect out

Of his kingdom

All causes of sin

And all evildoers.

They will throw them

Into the furnace of fire.

There will be weeping

And gnashing of teeth.”

 

ἀποστελεῖ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τοὺς ἀγγέλους αὐτοῦ, καὶ συλλέξουσιν ἐκ τῆς βασιλείας αὐτοῦ πάντα τὰ σκάνδαλα καὶ τοὺς ποιοῦντας τὴν ἀνομίαν,

καὶ βαλοῦσιν αὐτοὺς εἰς τὴν κάμινον τοῦ πυρός· ἐκεῖ ἔσται ὁ κλαυθμὸς καὶ ὁ βρυγμὸς τῶν ὀδόντων.

 

Only Matthew has this explanation about the parable of the weeds, in chapter 13:24-30.  Here it is the harvest time, the end times, when the Son of Man would send out his angel reapers or messengers (ἀποστελεῖ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τοὺς ἀγγέλους αὐτοῦ).  These angels or harvesters would collect and gather out of his kingdom (καὶ συλλέξουσιν ἐκ τῆς βασιλείας αὐτοῦ) all the snares or causes of sin (πάντα τὰ σκάνδαλα), the sinners, and those practicing unlawfulness (καὶ τοὺς ποιοῦντας τὴν ἀνομίαν), the evil ones.  Then these angel reapers would burn them like the weeds in the parable.  They would throw them into the furnace of fire (καὶ βαλοῦσιν αὐτοὺς εἰς τὴν κάμινον τοῦ πυρός), where there would be weeping or lamenting and gnashing or grinding of teeth (ἐκεῖ ἔσται ὁ κλαυθμὸς καὶ ὁ βρυγμὸς τῶν ὀδόντων).  This later was the normal form of mourning or behavior of those who were upset or frustrated.  The evil weeds would be allowed to grow with the good grain until the end times of the harvest.  However, the evil weeds or the evil doers would suffer in fire and frustration as their final reward at the harvest end times.

The birth of Jesus in Bethlehem (Mt 2:1-2:1)

“In the time

Of King Herod,

Jesus was born

In Bethlehem

Of Judea.”

 

Τοῦ δὲ Ἰησοῦ γεννηθέντος ἐν Βηθλέεμ τῆς Ἰουδαίας ἐν ἡμέραις Ἡρῴδου τοῦ βασιλέως,

 

We have a specific time and place for the birth of Jesus. He was born (δὲ Ἰησοῦ γεννηθέντος) in Bethlehem in Judea (ἐν Βηθλέεμ τῆς Ἰουδαίας), during the reign of King Herod (ἐν ἡμέραις Ἡρῴδου τοῦ βασιλέως). Bethlehem was always in the territory of Judah, about 6 miles south of Jerusalem, with a current population of about 25,000 in the present day Palestinian territory. David was from Bethlehem, where Jesus was born. Matthew did not say why Joseph and Mary were in Bethlehem, like Luke, chapter 2, did because of a census. King Herod the Great (74 BCE-1 CE) was the Roman client king of Judea. In fact, the Roman Senate named him King of the Jews in 40 BCE. He built many things during his reign, including expanding the Second Temple in Jerusalem. At his death, his kingdom was divided among his children.

The last of the ten kingdoms (Dan 7:24-7:26)

“As for the ten horns,

Out of this kingdom,

Ten kings shall arise.

Another shall arise after them.

This one shall

Be different

From the former ones.

He shall put down

Three kings.

He shall speak words

Against the Most High.

He shall wear out

The holy ones

Of the Most High.

He shall attempt

To change

The sacred seasons.

He shall attempt

To change the law.

They shall be given

Into his power

For a time,

Two times,

Half a time.

Then the court shall sit

In judgment.

His dominion shall be

Taken away,

To be consumed,

To be totally destroyed

To the end.”

Next, he explained that the 10 horns on the beast were the 10 Greek kings that succeeded Alexander the Great in his kingdom. However, there was a vehemence against the little horn king that overthrew the 3 kings. This was, of course, a reference to the Greek King Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-163 BCE), who was different from the other Greek rulers. He spoke openly against the Most High God. He wore out God’s holy ones. He attempted to change the holy seasons and do away with the religious festivals. He also tried to change the Jewish law. He had power for a little while, before the final kingdom would come. Then his dominion would be taken away. He would be consumed and destroyed. 1 Maccabees, chapter 1, went into great detail about this king.

The decree about the living God of Daniel (Dan 6:26-6:27)

“I make a decree.

In all my royal dominion,

People should tremble,

People should fear,

Before the God of Daniel!

He is the living God!

He endures forever!

His kingdom

Shall never be destroyed!

His dominion

Has no end!

He delivers!

He rescues!

He works signs

In heaven!

He works wonders

On earth!

He has saved Daniel

From the power

Of the lions.”

King Darius made a decree for his royal kingdom. People were to fear and tremble before the God of Daniel, because he was a living God. He would endure forever. His kingdom will never be destroyed, since it has no end. He delivers people. He rescues people. He works signs and does wonders, both in heaven and on earth. Most of all, he has saved Daniel from the power of the lions. This is a universal declaration that all people in the whole world should realize what the God of Daniel has done for him. What a wonderful description of the role of God in human lives. Interesting enough, this great proclamation comes from this questionable Darius the Mede, and not an Israelite leader or prophet.