The paralytic stood up
What he had been
He went to his home.
He was glorifying God.”
καὶ παραχρῆμα ἀναστὰς ἐνώπιον αὐτῶν, ἄρας ἐφ’ ὃ κατέκειτο, ἀπῆλθεν εἰς τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ δοξάζων τὸν Θεόν.
The paralyzed man did exactly what Jesus told him to do. He got up and went to his home. Jesus had forgiven this man his sins and at the same time cured him of paralysis. Normally, the power to forgive sins was what only God could do. Luke said that this paralytic stood up before them (καὶ παραχρῆμα ἀναστὰς ἐνώπιον αὐτῶν). He took his bed that he had been lying on (ἄρας ἐφ’ ὃ κατέκειτο) and went home (ἀπῆλθεν εἰς τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ). At the same time, he was glorifying or praising God (δοξάζων τὸν Θεόν). Mark, chapter 2:12, and Matthew, chapter 9:7-8, are similar to Luke, so that Mark might be the source of this saying. Mark said that the paralyzed man did exactly as Jesus had told him to do. He stood up and immediately took his pallet bed in front of everybody. Jesus had forgiven this man’s sins and cured him of paralysis. How was the power to forgive sins, which only God could do, related to his healing powers? How were these powers related?
“Jesus went down
A city in Galilee.
He was teaching them
On the Sabbath.”
Καὶ κατῆλθεν εἰς Καφαρναοὺμ πόλιν τῆς Γαλιλαίας. καὶ ἦν διδάσκων αὐτοὺς ἐν τοῖς σάββασιν·
Luke said that Jesus went down to Capernaum (Καὶ κατῆλθεν εἰς Καφαρναοὺμ), a city in Galilee (πόλιν τῆς Γαλιλαίας). He was teaching them (καὶ ἦν διδάσκων αὐτοὺς) on the Sabbath (ἐν τοῖς σάββασιν). There is something similar to this in Mark, chapter 1:21, where Jesus was teaching on the Sabbath in Capernaum. Matthew, chapter 4:13, mentioned that Jesus set up his home in Capernaum. John, chapter 2:12, said that he went with his family to Capernaum for a few days. Capernaum was about 20 miles northeast of Nazareth, probably a fishing village of about 1,500 people at that time, on the northwest corner of the Sea of Galilee, in the old Israelite tribal territory of Naphtali. Obviously, there was some sort of Sabbath worship taking place there. Jesus went there, but the fact that he taught there might seem a little strange, if he had not been invited to do so. Capernaum became the unofficial headquarters for the ministry of Jesus in Galilee.
“Then they came
When he was
In the house,
Jesus asked them.
‘What were you
On the way?’”
Καὶ ἦλθον εἰς Καφαρναούμ. Καὶ ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ γενόμενος ἐπηρώτα αὐτούς Τί ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ διελογίζεσθε;
This opening question by Jesus is unique to Mark, who said that they came to Capernaum again (Καὶ ἦλθον εἰς Καφαρναούμ). Mark had mentioned that Capernaum was where he had made his home in chapter 2:1, and where he taught in the synagogue in chapter 1:21. Apparently, he had a house there, since there was talk about a house in Capernaum as here. When he was in the house (Καὶ ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ γενόμενος), Jesus asked them (ἐπηρώτα αὐτούς) what they were discussing or arguing about on the way there (Τί ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ διελογίζεσθε). Jesus knew that they had been talking about something that was a little heated.
“Jesus sent him away
To his home.
‘Do not even go
Into the village.’”
καὶ ἀπέστειλεν αὐτὸν εἰς οἶκον αὐτοῦ λέγων Μηδὲ εἰς τὴν κώμην εἰσέλθῃς.
This story of the healing of the blind man at Bethsaida was unique to Mark. Mark once again has an emphasis on the messianic secret. Jesus sent this former blind man away to his home (καὶ ἀπέστειλεν αὐτὸν εἰς οἶκον αὐτοῦ). He told (λέγων) this now seeing person that he should not go back into the village (Μηδὲ εἰς τὴν κώμην εἰσέλθῃς) of Bethsaida, but go straight home.
When Sabbath came,
He taught there.”
Καὶ εἰσπορεύονται εἰς Καφαρναούμ· καὶ εὐθὺς τοῖς σάββασιν εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὴν συναγωγὴν ἐδίδασκεν.
There is something similar to this in Luke, chapter 4:31, where Jesus was teaching on the Sabbath in Capernaum. Jesus and his entourage of at least 4 disciples went, traveled, or entered Capernaum (Καὶ εἰσπορεύονται εἰς Καφαρναούμ). When suddenly the Sabbath came (καὶ εὐθὺς τοῖς σάββασιν), Jesus entered the synagogue (εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὴν συναγωγὴν) and taught there (ἐδίδασκεν). Matthew, chapter 4:13, mentioned that Jesus set up his home in Capernaum. John, chapter 2:12, said that he went with his family to Capernaum for a few days. Capernaum was about 20 miles northeast of Nazareth, probably a fishing village of about 1,500 people at that time, on the northwest corner of the Sea of Galilee, in the old Israelite tribal territory of Zebulun and Naphtali. Synagogues were a new thing in the first century CE, something like local Jewish town hall meetings, but also as centers of study and worship, obviously outside of Jerusalem and its Temple. There may have been some sort of Sabbath worship taking place. Jesus with his disciples went there, which would not have been unusual. However, the fact that he taught there might seem a little strange, if not invited.
“When Jesus entered
Came to him.
He appealed to Jesus.”
Εἰσελθόντος δὲ αὐτοῦ εἰς Καφαρναοὺμ προσῆλθεν αὐτῷ ἑκατόνταρχος παρακαλῶν αὐτὸν
This story about Jesus going into Capernaum can be found in Luke, chapter 7:1-2, and Mark chapter 2:1. Jesus went back to Capernaum (Εἰσελθόντος δὲ αὐτοῦ εἰς Καφαρναοὺμ) that was now his home, as indicated in chapter 4:13 of this work. Capernaum (Καφαρναοὺμ) was a fishing village of about 1.500 people, on the northwest seaside corner of the Sea of Galilee. This non-Jewish Roman centurion came to him (προσῆλθεν αὐτῷ ἑκατόνταρχος) beseeching, imploring, asking, or appealing to Jesus (παρακαλῶν αὐτὸν). Thus, this centurion (ἑκατόνταρχος) was a Roman soldier in charge of 100 men, who also may have had more authority, as part of the Roman occupying troops of Galilee.
“Jesus left Nazareth.
He made his home
By the sea,
In the territory
καὶ καταλιπὼν τὴν Ναζαρὰ ἐλθὼν κατῴκησεν εἰς Καφαρναοὺμ τὴν παραθαλασσίαν ἐν ὁρίοις Ζαβουλὼν καὶ Νεφθαλείμ
Matthew is the only gospel story that mentions that Jesus set up his home in Capernaum. However, John, chapter 2:12, mentioned that he went with his family to Capernaum for a few days. Instead of going home to Nazareth, Jesus actually left Nazareth (καὶ καταλιπὼν τὴν Ναζαρὰ). He went and made his home in Capernaum (ἐλθὼν κατῴκησεν εἰς Καφαρναοὺμ), about 20 miles northeast of Nazareth, probably a fishing village of about 1.500 people at that time. Capernaum was on the northwest seaside (τὴν παραθαλασσίαν) corner of the Sea of Galilee, in the old territory of Zebulun and Naphtali (ἐν ὁρίοις Ζαβουλὼν καὶ Νεφθαλείμ). There was no explicit mention of the Sea of Galilee, but Capernaum is on that sea in the territory of Naphtali. However, the territory of Zebulun was west of Naphtali and not on the Sea of Galilee.