Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus responded to this person (εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ Ἰησοῦς) by saying that no one who puts his hand to the plow (Οὐδεὶς ἐπιβαλὼν τὴν χεῖρα ἐπ’ ἄροτρον) and then looks back (καὶ βλέπων εἰς τὰ ὀπίσω) was fit (εὔθετός ἐστιν) for the kingdom of God (τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ). This was another unique saying of Luke that was not found in Matthew. Being a disciple was not going to be easy. You could not even say goodbye to your family. Once you got started on your plow, there was no looking back. Everything was centered on the kingdom of God. Nothing else counted. Do you often turn away from Jesus?
Luke indicated that Jesus replied to them (ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς) that his mother (Μήτηρ μου) and his brothers (καὶ ἀδελφοί μου) were those who heard (οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ…ἀκούοντες) the word of God (τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ) and did it (καὶ ποιοῦντες). Mark, chapter 3:33-35, and Matthew, chapter 12:48-50, have something similar, but Matthew was closer to Mark.Luke had this simple concluding statement that sounded like a repudiation of his biological family. Mark said that Jesus made a distinction between his biological family and his new spiritual family, as he replied to the person who told him about his relatives. He asked him who his mother was and who were his brothers? He looked at those who were sitting around him in a circle. Then he said that they were his mother and his brothers. Anyone who did the will of God, would be his brother, his sister, and his mother. Matthew also said that Jesus asked them who his mother was and who his brothers were? He stretched out his hand pointing to his disciples and said that they were his mother and his brothers. Anyone who did the will of his Father in heaven would be his brother, his sister, and his mother. This idea of a new faith family was common among many religious groups, since their fellow believers were now their new family. No longer was a biological family important, because there was now a new spiritual family of Jesus believers. How important is your biological family to you?
Luke said that Jesus stretched out his hand (καὶ ἐκτείνας τὴν χεῖρα). He touched the leper (ἥψατο αὐτοῦ). He said that he had chosen (λέγων Θέλω) to make him clean (καθαρίσθητι). Immediately (καὶ εὐθέως), the leprosy left or went out of him (ἡ λέπρα ἀπῆλθεν ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ). This leper healing story can also be found in Mark, chapter 1:42, and Matthew, chapter 8:3. Mark said that Jesus was moved with pity or compassion, which was not mentioned here in Luke. However, the healing was the same. Jesus stretched out his hand and touched the leper, since it was not against Jewish law to touch a leper. Then Jesus said that he wanted to cleanse the leper. Immediately, the leprosy went away, exactly the same as here. This leper became clean. Thus, there was a prophetic cleansing of a leper, because Jesus had this healing touch.
Luke has John give this menacing saying that can be found almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 3:12. Thus, this might be a Q source saying, since it is not found in Mark or John. Luke has God, the Lord, as a farmer at harvest time. Luke had John say that this famer has his winnowing fork ready in his hand (οὗ τὸ πτύον ἐν τῇ χειρὶ αὐτοῦ). He was going to clear the threshing floors (διακαθᾶραι τὴν ἅλωνα αὐτοῦ). He was going to gather his wheat into his barn or granary (καὶ συναγαγεῖν τὸν σῖτον εἰς τὴν ἀποθήκην αὐτοῦ). He would then burn up the leftover chaff (τὸ δὲ ἄχυρον κατακαύσει) with an everlasting or unquenchable fire (πυρὶ ἀσβέστῳ). This last phrase was a little different than that of Matthew. Nevertheless, this was a clear warning against the useless ones, who like chaff, would burn in an unstoppable fire.
This is almost word for word in Mark, chapter 14:47. In Luke, chapter 22:49-50, there was a little discussion before the cutting off of the ear and then Jesus healed the ear that was hurt. John, chapter 18:51, explicitly named Peter, not one of those with Jesus, as the one who cut off the ear of the high priest’s slave. In fact, the slave has the name of Malchus. Both Mark and Matthew said that one of these unnamed disciples with Jesus (καὶ ἰδοὺ εἷς τῶν μετὰ Ἰησοῦ) stretched out his hand (ἐκτείνας τὴν χεῖρα). He then drew his sword (ἀπέσπασεν τὴν μάχαιραν αὐτοῦ) and struck a slave of the high priest (καὶ πατάξας τὸν δοῦλον τοῦ ἀρχιερέως). He cut his ear off (ἀφεῖλεν αὐτοῦ τὸ ὠτίον). Obviously, this could have started a major battle here.
Luke, chapter 8:21, and Mark, chapter 3:33-35, have something similar, but Matthew is closer to Mark. Jesus made a distinction between his biological family and his new spiritual family. Jesus replied to the person who told him about his relatives (ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν τῷ λέγοντι αὐτῷ). He asked him who his mother was and who his brothers were (Τίς ἐστιν ἡ μήτηρ μου, καὶ τίνες εἰσὶν οἱ ἀδελφοί μου). He stretched out his hand pointing to his disciples (καὶ ἐκτείνας τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ). He said that they were his mother and his brothers (εἶπεν Ἰδοὺ ἡ μήτηρ μου καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοί μου). Anyone who did the will of his Father in heaven (ὅστις γὰρ ἂν ποιήσῃ τὸ θέλημα τοῦ Πατρός μου τοῦ ἐν οὐρανοῖς) would be his brother (αὐτός μου ἀδελφὸς), his sister (καὶ ἀδελφὴ), and his mother (καὶ μήτηρ ἐστίν). No longer was a biological family important, because there was now a new spiritual faith family of Jesus believers.
This leper healing story can be found in Luke, chapter 5:13, and Mark, chapter 1:41-42, perhaps indicating Mark as the source. For Matthew, this represents the first miracle of Jesus. Jesus stretched out his hand (καὶ ἐκτείνας τὴν χεῖρα) and touched the leper (ἥψατο αὐτοῦ), since it was not against Jewish law to touch a leper. Then he said that he willed (λέγων Θέλω) or wanted to cure the leper. Jesus then told the leper to be clean (καθαρίσθητι). Immediately (καὶ εὐθέως), the leper was cleansed (ἐκαθερίσθη αὐτοῦ ἡ λέπρα), as the leprosy went away. This first miracle of Jesus was a prophetic cleansing of a leper, because Jesus had this healing touch.
Once again, there is a common source for John’s menacing saying between Luke, chapter 3:17, and Matthew, perhaps Q. God, the Lord of this farmer, has the winnowing fork in his hand (οὗ τὸ πτύον ἐν τῇ χειρὶ αὐτοῦ). He was going to clear the threshing floors (καὶ διακαθαριεῖ τὴν ἅλωνα αὐτοῦ,). He was going to gather his wheat into his barn in the granary (καὶ συνάξει τὸν σῖτον αὐτοῦ εἰς τὴν ἀποθήκην). The leftover chaff would be burned with an everlasting fire that could not be put out (καὶ συνάξει τὸν σῖτον αὐτοῦ εἰς τὴν ἀποθήκην). This was a warning against the useless ones who would burn in an unstoppable fire.
Zechariah then questioned the man with the measuring cord in his hand. He responded that he was going to measure Jerusalem to find out its width and length. The angel that had been talking to Zechariah heard from another angel that the new Jerusalem would not need walls, because so many people and animals would be there. Instead, Yahweh would provide protection with a wall of fire all around it, like a ring of fire. Yahweh was going to bring glory to Jerusalem, because he was going to bring his glory to Jerusalem.
The next vision of Zechariah was about a man with a measuring line in his hand. This was somewhat like the prophet Ezekiel, chapters 40-41, with the bronze man who was measuring everything in Jerusalem.