“Be on guard!
Will not be weighed down
And the worries
Of this life.
Then that day
Will not catch you
Προσέχετε δὲ ἑαυτοῖς μή ποτε βαρηθῶσιν ὑμῶν αἱ καρδίαι ἐν κραιπάλῃ καὶ μέθῃ καὶ μερίμναις βιωτικαῖς, καὶ ἐπιστῇ ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς αἰφνίδιος ἡ ἡμέρα ἐκείνη
Luke indicated that Jesus said to be on guard or aware (Προσέχετε δὲ ἑαυτοῖς), so that their hearts should not be weighed down (μή ποτε βαρηθῶσιν ὑμῶν αἱ καρδίαι) with dissipation (ἐν κραιπάλῃ), drunkenness (καὶ μέθῃ), and the daily worries of this life (καὶ μερίμναις βιωτικαῖς). Luke was the only Greek biblical writer to use this term κραιπάλῃ, that means drunken nausea or drunken dissipation. Thus, the day of the end times would not suddenly catch you unexpectedly (καὶ ἐπιστῇ ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς αἰφνίδιος ἡ ἡμέρα ἐκείνη). There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 24:43 and Mark, chapter 13:35. Mark indicated that Jesus said that they were to be aware (Βλέπετε) and alert all the time (ἀγρυπνεῖτε), because they did not know (οὐκ οἴδατε) when the end times (γὰρ πότε ὁ καιρός ἐστιν) would come. Luke, chapter 12:39-40, also had something similar about the thief at night. Jesus warned his disciples to be vigilant. They were to stay awake (γρηγορεῖτε οὖν), because they did not know on what day (ὅτι οὐκ οἴδατε ποίᾳ ἡμέρᾳ) the Lord was coming (ὁ κύριος ὑμῶν ἔρχεται). Therefore, they had to be ready or prepared (διὰ τοῦτο καὶ ὑμεῖς γίνεσθε ἕτοιμοι) for the coming of the Son of Man (ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἔρχεται) because he would be coming at an unexpected hour (ὅτι ᾗ οὐ δοκεῖτε ὥρᾳ). This is also similar to the parable ending in Matthew, chapter 25:13, about the virgins at the wedding being vigilant. This was a simple message to be vigilant all the time, because your end or the end of the world could happen at any time. Are you ready to go?
I say to you!
Will not pass away
Until all these things
Have taken place.”
ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι οὐ μὴ παρέλθῃ ἡ γενεὰ αὕτη ἕως ἂν πάντα γένηται.
Luke indicated that Jesus spoke with a solemn pronouncement (ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν) that this generation would not pass away (ὅτι οὐ μὴ παρέλθῃ ἡ γενεὰ αὕτη) until all things had taken place (ἕως ἂν πάντα γένηται). This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 24:34, and in Mark, chapter 13:30. Mark indicated that Jesus, in a solemn proclamation (ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν) said that this current generation would not pass away (ὅτι οὐ μὴ παρέλθῃ ἡ γενεὰ αὕτη) until all these things had taken place (οὗ ταῦτα πάντα γένηται). In Matthew, Jesus said with a solemn proclamation (ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν), that this current generation would not pass away (ὅτι οὐ μὴ παρέλθῃ ἡ γενεὰ αὕτη) until all these things had taken place (ἕως ἂν πάντα ταῦτα γένηται). In other words, Jesus said that his disciples would live to see the end times, something that did not happen. However, that generation did get to see the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem. Do you think that the end of the world will happen while you are alive?
“You will be hated
Because of my name.”
καὶ ἔσεσθε μισούμενοι ὑπὸ πάντων διὰ τὸ ὄνομά μου.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that they would be hated or detested (καὶ ἔσεσθε μισούμενοι) by all people (ὑπὸ πάντων) because of his name (διὰ τὸ ὄνομά μου). There was something similar, word for word, in Matthew, chapter 10:22, and chapter 24:9, and in Mark, chapter 13:13. Mark indicated that Jesus said that they would be hated (καὶ ἔσεσθε μισούμενοι) by all people (ὑπὸ πάντων) because of his name (διὰ τὸ ὄνομά μου). Jesus, via Matthew, told his disciples that they would be hated or detested by everyone (καὶ ἔσεσθε μισούμενοι ὑπὸ πάντων) because of his name (διὰ τὸ ὄνομά μου). They would be hated and detested (καὶ ἔσεσθε μισούμενοι) by all the gentile nations (ὑπὸ πάντων τῶν ἐθνῶν) because of his name (διὰ τὸ ὄνομά μου). This was tough talk because it was not going to be easy to be a disciple of Jesus after he was gone. Have you had anyone hate or dislike you because you were a Christian?
“Make up your minds!
Do not prepare
θέτε οὖν ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ὑμῶν μὴ προμελετᾶν ἀπολογηθῆναι·
Luke indicated that Jesus told them to make up or settle their minds or hearts (θέτε οὖν ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ὑμῶν), so that they did not have to prepare their defense ahead of time (μὴ προμελετᾶν ἀπολογηθῆναι). This is unique use by Luke of the term προμελετᾶν, that means to premeditate, meditate beforehand, or prepare. Equivalent passages to this can be found in Matthew, chapter 10:19, and Mark, chapter 13:11. Mark indicated that Jesus told his disciples not to worry beforehand or be anxious about what to say (μὴ προμεριμνᾶτε τί λαλήσητε), when they were handed over and brought to trial (καὶ ὅταν ἄγωσιν ὑμᾶς παραδιδόντες). Matthew indicated that Jesus told his disciples not to worry or be anxious (μὴ μεριμνήσητε), when they were handed over (ὅταν δὲ παραδῶσιν ὑμᾶς) to these courts or tribunals. They should not worry about how or what they should say (πῶς ἢ τί λαλήσητε). It will be given to them (δοθήσεται γὰρ ὑμῖν) in that hour at that time (ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ) what they should say (τί λαλήσητε). Luke simply said that they were not to make any preparations for their defense. Would you like to be prepared before you went to court?
I tell you!
This poor widow
Has put in
All of them.’”
καὶ εἶπεν Ἀληθῶς λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι ἡ χήρα αὕτη ἡ πτωχὴ πλεῖον πάντων ἔβαλεν·
Luke indicated that Jesus said (καὶ εἶπεν) with a solemn pronouncement (Ἀληθῶς λέγω ὑμῖν) that this poor widow (ὅτι ἡ χήρα αὕτη ἡ πτωχὴ) had put in more than all of them (πλεῖον πάντων ἔβαλεν). This sounded a little strange, since her gift was so miniscule. Only Mark, chapter 12:43, has something similar, while Matthew did not mention this incident at all. Mark said that Jesus called his disciples together (καὶ προσκαλεσάμενος τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ). He told them with a solemn pronouncement (εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν) that this poor widow had put in more money than all those rich people who were contributing to the treasury (ὅτι ἡ χήρα αὕτη ἡ πτωχὴ πλεῖον πάντων ἔβαλεν τῶν βαλλόντων εἰς τὸ γαζοφυλάκιον). In plain numerical terms, that was not correct, but proportionally it was true. She had given the smallest amount of Greek or Roman money as possible. There was nothing smaller than her contribution of two copper lepton coins. However, she had so little to begin with, so that this was a large contribution for her. What is the largest donation that you ever made?
“In the hearing
Of all the people,
To his disciples.”
Ἀκούοντος δὲ παντὸς τοῦ λαοῦ εἶπεν τοῖς μαθηταῖς
Luke said that Jesus spoke to his disciples (εἶπεν τοῖς μαθηταῖς), but within the hearing of all the people (Ἀκούοντος δὲ παντὸς τοῦ λαοῦ. Matthew, chapter 23:1, indicated that Jesus was speaking (Τότε ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἐλάλησεν) to the crowds (τοῖς ὄχλοις) and his disciples (καὶ τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ) at the same time. Mark, chapter 12:37, simply had the comment that a large crowd was listening to Jesus with delight (Καὶ ὁ πολὺς ὄχλος ἤκουεν αὐτοῦ ἡδέως). In other words, Jesus was speaking to his disciples, but openly enough that the crowds around him could hear it. Have you ever been someplace where you could hear what people were speaking about?
They watched Jesus.
They sent spies,
To be righteous themselves.
To trap him.
They might hand him over
To the jurisdiction
Of the governor.”
Καὶ παρατηρήσαντες ἀπέστειλαν ἐνκαθέτους ὑποκρινομένους ἑαυτοὺς δικαίους εἶναι, ἵνα ἐπιλάβωνται αὐτοῦ λόγου, ὥστε παραδοῦναι αὐτὸν τῇ ἀρχῇ καὶ τῇ ἐξουσίᾳ τοῦ ἡγεμόνος
Luke said that the chief priests and the Scribes were watching Jesus very closely (Καὶ παρατηρήσαντες). They sent spies (ἀπέστειλαν ἐνκαθέτους). Luke used the word ἐνκαθέτους, that means hired to lie in wait, lying in wait, or a spy, as the only time this word appeared in all the Greek biblical literature. They pretended to be honest righteous men themselves (ὑποκρινομένους ἑαυτοὺς δικαίους εἶναι). Luke has another unique usage of the word ὑποκρινομένους that means to reply, to answer on a stage, to pretend, or act the part. They were trying to trap or catch Jesus with his own words (ἵνα ἐπιλάβωνται αὐτοῦ λόγου). Thus, they might be able to hand him over (ὥστε παραδοῦναι αὐτὸν) to the rule or jurisdiction (τῇ ἀρχῇ) and authority of the Roman client governor (καὶ τῇ ἐξουσίᾳ τοῦ ἡγεμόνος). There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 22:15-16, and in Mark, chapter 12:13. Mark said that the Pharisees sent some of their own people to Jesus (Καὶ ἀποστέλλουσιν πρὸς αὐτόν τινας τῶν Φαρισαίων). The Pharisees were always testing or tempting Jesus and his disciples, but they were not mentioned in Luke. They also sent along some Herodians (καὶ τῶν Ἡρῳδιανῶν), who were the followers or political supporters of King Herod Antipas, the Roman client tetrarch king of Galilee, the one who had John the Baptist beheaded. Both these groups were out to trap Jesus or catch him by using his own words against him (ἵνα αὐτὸν ἀγρεύσωσιν λόγῳ). Matthew said that the Pharisees went away (Τότε πορευθέντες οἱ Φαρισαῖοι) for a while, but they plotted or gathered together (συμβούλιον ἔλαβον) to entrap or entangle Jesus in what he had said (ὅπως αὐτὸν παγιδεύσωσιν ἐν λόγῳ). These Pharisees sent their own disciples to Jesus (καὶ ἀποστέλλουσιν αὐτῷ τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτῶν), along with some Herodians (μετὰ τῶν Ἡρῳδιανῶν), just like Mark had mentioned. They were out to trick or trap Jesus. Have you ever tried to trap anyone?