Judah and Perez (Lk 3:33-3:33)

“The son of Amminadab,

The son of Admin,

The son of Arni,

The son of Hezron,

The son of Perez,

The son of Judah.”

 

τοῦ Ἀμιναδὰβ τοῦ Ἀδμεὶν τοῦ Ἀρνεὶ τοῦ Ἐσρὼμ τοῦ Φαρὲς τοῦ Ἰούδα

 

The two genealogies of Matthew and Luke are almost the same from Judah to Amminadab.  Luke listed them as Nahshon, the son of Amminadab (τοῦ Ἀμιναδὰβ), the son of Admin (τοῦ Ἀδμεὶν), the son of Arni (τοῦ Ἀρνεὶ), the son of Hezron (τοῦ Ἐσρὼμ), the son of Perez (τοῦ Φαρὲς), the son of Judah (τοῦ Ἰούδα).  Clearly, Judah had become the dominant tribe by the time of Jesus.  The story of the children for Judah is a very interesting tale as portrayed in Genesis, chapter 38.  Judah married a Canaanite woman named Bathshuah in Adullam.  They had three sons, Er, Onan, and Shelah.  Then the story got more complicated.  Judah found a lady named Tamar to be a wife for his first-born wicked son Er, whom Yahweh put to death.  Then Judah sent Onan, his second son, to produce children for his brother from Tamar, Er’s wife.  However, Onan spilled his semen on the ground, so that he would not have any children.  Thus, Yahweh put him to death also.  Judah then told Tamar to live as a widow in her father’s house, until his youngest son Shelah was older and able to marry her.  Tamar, in the meantime, saw that Shelah had grown up, but was not being offered in marriage to her.  She decided to throw off her widow garments, put a veil on, and sit on the road from Adullam to Timnah.  Now Judah, whose wife Bathshuah had died, was on this same road and thought that she was a prostitute, because her face was covered.  He gave her his signature ring and the cord as a pledge that he would pay her later for her sexual favors.  They had sex and she conceived by him.  Three months later, Judah found out that his daughter-in-law Tamar was pregnant as a result of prostitution.  He wanted her immediately burned, but she told Judah that the owner of a ring and cord made her pregnant.  Judah admitted that she was right.  Tamar then had twins from this pregnancy, Perez and Zerah, who disputed about who was the first out of the womb.  Interesting enough, the line of Judah would have died out without this prostitute episode.  Thus, the sacred lineage of Judah goes through a father-in-law having paid sex with his daughter-in-law, Tamar, who was a Canaanite.  According to Genesis, chapter 46:12, Perez, the son of Judah, had 2 sons, Hezron and Hamul. who went with Jacob to Egypt.  From 1 Chronicles, chapter 2:9-17, we learn about the linage of Hezron.  He had 3 sons, Jerahmeel, Aram, and Chelubai.  This Aram, Arni, or Ram was the father of Aminadab or Amminadab.  Luke added an Admin who is not found elsewhere or maybe another name for Ram.  Amminadab had a daughter, Elisheba, who married Aaron, the brother of Moses, in Exodus, chapter 6:23.  Amminadab was the father of Nahshon, the brother-in-law of Aaron and Moses.

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The descendants of Perez (Mt 1:3-1:4)

“Perez was

The father of Hezron.

Hezron was

The father of Aram.

Aram was

The father of Aminadab.

Aminadab was

The father of Nahshon,

Nahshon was

The father of Salmon,”

 

Φαρὲς δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἐσρώμ, Ἐσρὼμ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἀράμ,  Ἀρὰμ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἀμιναδάβ, Ἀμιναδὰβ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ναασσών, Ναασσὼν δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Σαλμών,

 

The genealogical lineage of Judah went through Perez (Φαρὲς), not Zerah.  According to Genesis, chapter 46, Perez had 2 sons, Hezron (Ἐσρώμ) and Hamul. who went with Jacob to Egypt.  From 1 Chronicles, chapter 2, we learn about the linage of Hezron.  He had 3 sons, Jerahmeel, Aram (Ἀράμ), and Chelubai.  This Aram became the father of Aminadab (Ἀμιναδάβ).  Aminadab had a daughter, Elisheba, who married Aaron, the brother of Moses, in Exodus, chapter 6.  Aminadab was the father of Nahshon (Ναασσών), a famous warrior prince of Judah, especially in Numbers, chapter 7.  Nahshon became the father of Salma or Salmon (Σαλμών).  The Greek text used the term ‘begat’ (ἐγέννησεν) to represent the relationships between these 5 men.  However, it seems perfectly acceptable to simply call them the father instead of saying “fathered them.”

The sons of Reuben (1 Chr 5:3-5:3)

“The sons of Reuben, the first-born of Israel, were Hanoch, Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi.”

In fact, the real first-born was Reuben, yet he gets very little attention. Reuben (the Reubenites) had 4 sons (1) Hanoch (the Hanochites), (2) Pallu (the Palluites), (3) Hezron (the Hezronites), and (4) Carmi (the Carmites). However, this Hezron is not the same as the one listed as the grandson of Judah, the son of Perez. These names are exactly the same as in Genesis, chapter 46.

Judah (1 Chr 4:1-4:1)

“The sons of Judah were Perez, Hezron, Carmi, Hur, and Shobal.”

Now we look at the settled lands of the southern tribes or clans. This is not the strictly artificial 12 tribes of Israel only. This list that starts with the 5 sons of Judah is completely different from the list in chapter 2, of this book, where the 5 sons were Er, Onan, Shelah, Perez, and Zerah based on Genesis, chapter 38. Only (1) Perez is left over from this early list. (2) Hezron was actually the son of Perez, or the grandson of Judah based on the preceding chapter. (3) Carmi was the son of Zerah, the lesser known twin brother of Perez, so that he is Perez’ nephew, and also a grandson of Judah. (4) Hur, on the other hand, was the grandson of Hezron, via Caleb, thus the great grandson of Judah. (5) Shobal was the son of Hur, thus the great–great grandson of Judah, quite a distance removed from Judah. Once again there is a little confusion on the part of the biblical author here compared to the preceding chapter.

The descendants of Perez (1 Chr 2:5-2:5)

“The sons of Perez were Hezron and Hamul.”

This is based on Genesis, chapter 46. These were the 2 sons of Perez listed as going to Egypt with Jacob when he went with all his sons to be with Joseph. There is not information about Perez or his sons. Hezron is the same name as one of Reuben’s sons or the first cousin of Perez. The Hezronites are either derived from Reuben’s son or Perez’s son. This Hezron, the son of Perez, is mentioned in the genealogies of Jesus in both the Gospel of Luke and the Gospel of Matthew. This indicates the importance of Perez and Hezron. Hamul lead to the Hamulites, as indicated in Numbers, chapter 26. However, his name is only mentioned 3 times, here, Genesis, and Numbers.