Silent response (Lk 20:26-20:26)

“They were not able,

In the presence

Of the people,

To catch him

By what he said.

They were amazed

By his answer.

They became silent.”

 

καὶ οὐκ ἴσχυσαν ἐπιλαβέσθαι αὐτοῦ ῥήματος ἐναντίον τοῦ λαοῦ, καὶ θαυμάσαντες ἐπὶ τῇ ἀποκρίσει αὐτοῦ ἐσίγησαν.

 

Luke said that these Jewish religious and Roman political leaders were not able or strong enough to catch him by what he said (καὶ οὐκ ἴσχυσαν ἐπιλαβέσθαι αὐτοῦ ῥήματος), in the presence of the people (ἐναντίον τοῦ λαοῦ).  In fact, they themselves were amazed by his answer (καὶ θαυμάσαντες ἐπὶ τῇ ἀποκρίσει αὐτοῦ).  Thus, they became silent (ἐσίγησαν).  There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 22:22, and in Mark, chapter 12:17, where the Pharisees and Herodians were also amazed.  Mark said that when these disciples of the Pharisees and Herodians heard this response, they were amazed or marveled at Jesus (καὶ ἐξεθαύμαζον ἐπ’ αὐτῷ).  However, there was no mention of them leaving as in Matthew, or being silent as in LukeMatthew said that when these disciples of the Pharisees heard this response (καὶ ἀκούσαντες), they were amazed or marveled at it (ἐθαύμασαν).  Then, they left and went away (καὶ ἀφέντες αὐτὸν ἀπῆλθαν).  They had failed to trip up Jesus as was their plan.  Have you ever failed to trick anyone?

Tribute to Caesar (Lk 20:22-20:22)

“Is it lawful

For us

To pay taxes

To Caesar,

The Roman Emperor,

Or not?”

 

ἔξεστιν ἡμᾶς Καίσαρι φόρον δοῦναι ἢ οὔ;

 

Luke indicated this group asked whether it was lawful for them (ἔξεστιν ἡμᾶς) to pay taxes (φόρον δοῦναι) to Caesar (Καίσαρι), the Roman Emperor, or not (ἢ οὔ)?  This is similar to Matthew, chapter 22:17, and Mark, chapter 12:14, but slightly different.  They wanted to know what Jesus thought about the Roman tax law.  Mark said that they asked him whether it was lawful to pay the poll tax to Caesar or not (ἔξεστιν δοῦναι κῆνσον Καίσαρι ἢ οὔ)?  They wanted to know the practical answer about whether they should pay this tax or not (δῶμεν ἢ μὴ δῶμεν)?  Matthew indicated that these Pharisee disciples and the Herodians tried to trick Jesus.  They wanted to know what Jesus thought about the Roman tax.  They asked him (εἰπὸν οὖν ἡμῖν) what did he think (τί σοι δοκεῖ).  Was it lawful to pay the poll tax to Caesar or not (ἔξεστιν δοῦναι κῆνσον Καίσαρι ἢ οὔ)?  Rome had an annual personal census tax of one denarius worth about $1.50 USA, not that much.  However, many of the Roman tax collectors were considered sinners.  Jesus, on the other hand, had a milder view of these tax collectors.  He appeared to accept the Roman rule and its taxing policies.  As the political party of the Romans, the Herodians were there.  The Israelites with the Pharisees were there also.  Thus, his answer might offend someone.  In fact, some Jewish zealots refused to pay any civil tax to the emperor.  Do you like to pay taxes?

A true teacher (Lk 20:21-20:21)

“Thus,

They asked Jesus.

‘Teacher!

We know

That you are right

In what you say

And teach!

You show deference

To no one!

You teach

The way of God

In accordance with truth!’”

 

καὶ ἐπηρώτησαν αὐτὸν λέγοντες Διδάσκαλε, οἴδαμεν ὅτι ὀρθῶς λέγεις καὶ διδάσκεις καὶ οὐ λαμβάνεις πρόσωπον, ἀλλ’ ἐπ’ ἀληθείας τὴν ὁδὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ διδάσκεις·

 

Luke indicated that this group questioned Jesus (καὶ ἐπηρώτησαν αὐτὸν) respectfully, calling him teacher (λέγοντες Διδάσκαλε).  They knew that Jesus spoke correctly (οἴδαμεν ὅτι ὀρθῶς λέγεις) and taught correctly (καὶ διδάσκεις).  Jesus did not receive anyone (καὶ οὐ λαμβάνεις πρόσωπον), except on the basis of truth (ἀλλ’ ἐπ’ ἀληθείας), because he taught (διδάσκεις) the way of God (τὴν ὁδὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ).  This was similar to Matthew, chapter 22:16, and Mark, chapter 12:14, almost word for word.  Mark said that the Pharisees and the Herodians came and spoke to Jesus (καὶ ἐλθόντες λέγουσιν αὐτῷ).  They called Jesus their teacher or rabbi (Διδάσκαλε).  They said that they knew that Jesus was sincere or truthful (οἴδαμεν ὅτι ἀληθὴς), because Jesus did not show any deference to anybody (εἶ καὶ οὐ μέλει σοι περὶ οὐδενός).  He did not regard people with partiality based on their appearances (οὐ γὰρ βλέπεις εἰς πρόσωπον ἀνθρώπων).  Thus, Jesus taught the truthful way of God (ἀλλ’ ἐπ’ ἀληθείας τὴν ὁδὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ διδάσκεις).  Matthew said that the Pharisees sent their own disciples, not themselves, to Jesus (καὶ ἀποστέλλουσιν αὐτῷ τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτῶν).  But they also sent along some Herodians (μετὰ τῶν Ἡρῳδιανῶν) also, the followers or political supporters of King Herod Antipas, the Roman client tetrarch king of Galilee, the one who had John the Baptist beheaded.  This group spoke to Jesus in flattering terms (λέγοντας).  They called Jesus their teacher or rabbi (Διδάσκαλε,).  They said that they knew that Jesus was sincere or truthful, since he knew the truthful way of God (οἴδαμεν ὅτι ἀληθὴς εἶ καὶ τὴν ὁδὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ).  He taught truthfulness (ἐν ἀληθείᾳ διδάσκεις).  Jesus did not show any deference to anybody (καὶ οὐ μέλει σοι περὶ οὐδενός).  He did not regard people with partiality based on their appearances (οὐ γὰρ βλέπεις εἰς πρόσωπον ἀνθρώπων).  They were buttering up Jesus with these flattering statements about how he was so sincere and truthful, since he had not shown any deference or partiality to anybody.  Do you flatter people to trick them?

The people against Jesus (Lk 20:20-20:20)

“Thus,

They watched Jesus.

They sent spies,

Who pretended

To be righteous themselves.

They tried

To trap him.

Thus,

They might hand him over

To the jurisdiction

And authority

Of the governor.”

 

Καὶ παρατηρήσαντες ἀπέστειλαν ἐνκαθέτους ὑποκρινομένους ἑαυτοὺς δικαίους εἶναι, ἵνα ἐπιλάβωνται αὐτοῦ λόγου, ὥστε παραδοῦναι αὐτὸν τῇ ἀρχῇ καὶ τῇ ἐξουσίᾳ τοῦ ἡγεμόνος 

 

Luke said that the chief priests and the Scribes were watching Jesus very closely (Καὶ παρατηρήσαντες).  They sent spies (ἀπέστειλαν ἐνκαθέτους).  Luke used the word ἐνκαθέτους, that means hired to lie in wait, lying in wait, or a spy, as the only time this word appeared in all the Greek biblical literature.  They pretended to be honest righteous men themselves (ὑποκρινομένους ἑαυτοὺς δικαίους εἶναι).  Luke has another unique usage of the word ὑποκρινομένους that means to reply, to answer on a stage, to pretend, or act the part.  They were trying to trap or catch Jesus with his own words (ἵνα ἐπιλάβωνται αὐτοῦ λόγου).  Thus, they might be able to hand him over (ὥστε παραδοῦναι αὐτὸν) to the rule or jurisdiction (τῇ ἀρχῇ) and authority of the Roman client governor (καὶ τῇ ἐξουσίᾳ τοῦ ἡγεμόνος).  There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 22:15-16, and in Mark, chapter 12:13.  Mark said that the Pharisees sent some of their own people to Jesus (Καὶ ἀποστέλλουσιν πρὸς αὐτόν τινας τῶν Φαρισαίων).  The Pharisees were always testing or tempting Jesus and his disciples, but they were not mentioned in Luke.  They also sent along some Herodians (καὶ τῶν Ἡρῳδιανῶν), who were the followers or political supporters of King Herod Antipas, the Roman client tetrarch king of Galilee, the one who had John the Baptist beheaded.  Both these groups were out to trap Jesus or catch him by using his own words against him (ἵνα αὐτὸν ἀγρεύσωσιν λόγῳ).  Matthew said that the Pharisees went away (Τότε πορευθέντες οἱ Φαρισαῖοι) for a while, but they plotted or gathered together (συμβούλιον ἔλαβον) to entrap or entangle Jesus in what he had said (ὅπως αὐτὸν παγιδεύσωσιν ἐν λόγῳ).  These Pharisees sent their own disciples to Jesus (καὶ ἀποστέλλουσιν αὐτῷ τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτῶν), along with some Herodians (μετὰ τῶν Ἡρῳδιανῶν), just like Mark had mentioned.  They were out to trick or trap Jesus.  Have you ever tried to trap anyone?

What to do? (Lk 6:11-6:11)

“But they

Were filled

With fury.

They discussed

With one another

What they might do

To Jesus.”

 

αὐτοὶ δὲ ἐπλήσθησαν ἀνοίας, καὶ διελάλουν πρὸς ἀλλήλους τί ἂν ποιήσαιεν τῷ Ἰησοῦ.

 

Luke said that they were filled with rage or fury (ὐτοὶ δὲ ἐπλήσθησαν ἀνοίας).  They discussed with one another (καὶ διελάλουν πρὸς ἀλλήλους) what they might do to Jesus (τί ἂν ποιήσαιεν τῷ Ἰησοῦ).  Matthew, chapter 12:14, and Mark, chapter 3:6, are similar to Luke.  However, Mark was the only one to mention both the Pharisees and the Herodians.  Matthew mentioned just the Pharisees, while Luke used the vague “they”.  Mark said that the Pharisees conspired with the Herodians against Jesus.  They wondered how they could destroy or kill him.  The Herodians were not a religious group but a political group that backed the Galilean governor Herod Antipas (4-39 CE).  Right from the beginning, there was this animosity between Jesus and the religious leaders of the Pharisees and the local political leaders of Herod.  Matthew has this episode end with only the Pharisees getting together to conspire to destroy Jesus.  However, the wording was a little different among these synoptic writers, but all these people conspired on how to grab, destroy, or kill Jesus.

They were amazed (Mk 12:17-12:17)

“They were utterly amazed

At Jesus.”

 

καὶ ἐξεθαύμαζον ἐπ’ αὐτῷ.

 

There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 22:22, and in Luke, chapter 20:26, where the Pharisees and Herodians were amazed, but there was no mention of them leaving as in Matthew, or being silent as in LukeMark said that when these disciples of the Pharisees and Herodians heard this response, they were amazed or marveled at Jesus (καὶ ἐξεθαύμαζον ἐπ’ αὐτῷ).  They had failed to trip up Jesus, as was their plan.

They try to trap Jesus (Mk 12:13-12:13)

“They sent

To Jesus,

Some Pharisees

And some Herodians,

To trap him

In what he said.”

 

Καὶ ἀποστέλλουσιν πρὸς αὐτόν τινας τῶν Φαρισαίων καὶ τῶν Ἡρῳδιανῶν ἵνα αὐτὸν ἀγρεύσωσιν λόγῳ

 

There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 22:15-16, and in Luke, chapter 20:20, as the Pharisees plotted to entrap or entangle Jesus in what he had said.  Mark said that the Pharisees sent some of their own people to Jesus (Καὶ ἀποστέλλουσιν πρὸς αὐτόν τινας τῶν Φαρισαίων).  The Pharisees were a political party, a social movement, and a religious school of thought that followed the Law of Moses, but with a number of oral traditions.  They had they own expert explanations of Jewish law that sometimes appeared to be hypocritical or arrogant, with a form of Judaism that extended beyond the Temple.  They were always testing or tempting Jesus and his disciples.  They also sent along some Herodians (καὶ τῶν Ἡρῳδιανῶν).  Who are these people?  They were the followers or political supporters of King Herod Antipas, the Roman client tetrarch king of Galilee, the one who had John the Baptist beheaded.  Both these groups were out to trap Jesus or catch him by using his own words against him (ἵνα αὐτὸν ἀγρεύσωσιν λόγῳ).