Jesus wakes up his favorite apostles (Mt 26:45-26:46)

“Then Jesus came

To the disciples.

He said to them.

‘Are you still sleeping?

Are you taking your rest?

See!

The hour is at hand.

The Son of Man

Is betrayed

Into the hands

Of sinners.

Get up!

Let us be going!

See!

My betrayer

Is approaching.’”

 

τότε ἔρχεται πρὸς τοὺς μαθητὰς καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς Καθεύδετε λοιπὸν καὶ ἀναπαύεσθε· ἰδοὺ ἤγγικεν ἡ ὥρα καὶ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου παραδίδοται εἰς χεῖρας ἁμαρτωλῶν.

ἐγείρεσθε, ἄγωμεν· ἰδοὺ ἤγγικεν ὁ παραδιδούς με.

 

This is almost word for word in Mark, chapter 14:41-42.  In Luke, chapter 22, and John, chapter 22, there is nothing more about these sleeping disciples of Jesus.  Matthew and Mark both recount that Jesus came to his disciples (τότε ἔρχεται πρὸς τοὺς μαθητὰς) for a 3rd time.  He spoke to them (καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς).  He told them that there would be plenty of time for sleeping and taking rest later (Καθεύδετε λοιπὸν καὶ ἀναπαύεσθε).  He woke them up to tell them that the hour had come (ἰδοὺ ἤγγικεν ἡ ὥρα) when the Son of Man was going to be betrayed or handed over (καὶ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου παραδίδοται) into the hands of sinners (εἰς χεῖρας ἁμαρτωλῶν).  They had to get up and get going (ἐγείρεσθε, ἄγωμεν).  The betrayer was approaching them right away (ἰδοὺ ἤγγικεν ὁ παραδιδούς με).  The time for resting was over.  All hands-on deck!  The betrayer was coming to get him right away.

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Thirty pieces of silver (Mt 26:15-26:16)

“Judas said.

‘What will you give me

If I betray

Jesus to you?’

The chief priests

Paid him

Thirty pieces of silver.

From that moment on,

He began to look

For an opportunity

To betray him.”

 

εἶπεν Τί θέλετέ μοι δοῦναι, κἀγὼ ὑμῖν παραδώσω αὐτόν; οἱ δὲ ἔστησαν αὐτῷ τριάκοντα ἀργύρια.

καὶ ἀπὸ τότε ἐζήτει εὐκαιρίαν ἵνα αὐτὸν παραδῷ.

 

This is similar to Mark, chapter 14:11, and Luke, chapter 22:5-6, but there is no mention of the exact amount of money there.  Matthew said that Judas wanted to know what these chief priests were willing to give him (εἶπεν Τί θέλετέ μοι δοῦναι) if he betrayed or handed over Jesus to them (κἀγὼ ὑμῖν παραδώσω αὐτόν).  Matthew said that these chief priests paid him 30 pieces of silver (οἱ δὲ ἔστησαν αὐτῷ τριάκοντα ἀργύρια).  This Roman silver coin was worth about 4 denarii each, so that these silver pieces were worth about 120 denarii or about $180.00 US, not an unbelievable number, but still a substantial amount since one denarius was equivalent to a day’s wages.  From that moment on (καὶ ἀπὸ τότε), Judas began to look for an opportunity to betray Jesus (ἐζήτει εὐκαιρίαν ἵνα αὐτὸν παραδῷ).

Fourth prediction about the death of the Son of Man (Mt 26:2-26:2)

“You know

That after two days

The Passover is coming.

The Son of Man

Will be handed over

To be crucified.”

 

Οἴδατε ὅτι μετὰ δύο ἡμέρας τὸ πάσχα γίνεται, καὶ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου παραδίδοται εἰς τὸ σταυρωθῆναι.

 

This is something similar to this in Mark, chapter 14:1, and in Luke, chapter 22:1, where there was talk of the Passover in 2 days, but no mention of the future death of Jesus.  Jesus said to his disciples that they should know (Οἴδατε) that in 2 days (μετὰ δύο ἡμέρας), the Passover would take place (τὸ πάσχα γίνεται), just like in Mark and Luke.   However, Matthew has Jesus issue his 4th prediction about his death.  He said that Son of Man (καὶ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) would be betrayed or handed over to be crucified (παραδίδοται εἰς τὸ σταυρωθῆναι).  This was similar to the same predictions in the preceding chapters, 16:21-23, 17:22-23, and 20:17:19.  The Passover was a major Jewish celebration in Jerusalem, celebrating the Israelite Exodus from Egypt.

The slave with two talents (Mt 25:22-25:22)

“The slave with two talents

Also came forward.

He said.

‘Master!

You handed over

To me

Two talents.

See!

I have made

Two more talents.’”

 

προσελθὼν καὶ ὁ τὰ δύο τάλαντα εἶπεν Κύριε, δύο τάλαντά μοι παρέδωκας· ἴδε ἄλλα δύο τάλαντα ἐκέρδησα.

 

This parable is unique to Matthew, but there is an equivalent in Luke, chapter 19:18, where the 2nd slave had made 5 times more than what he had originally.  Here this 2nd slave only doubled his investment.  Jesus said that the one who had received the 2 talents (προσελθὼν καὶ ὁ τὰ δύο τάλαντα) came forward.  He explained to his lord and master (εἶπεν Κύριε) that he had given him 2 talents (δύο τάλαντά μοι παρέδωκας), but now he had made, acquired, or gained 2 more talents (ἴδε ἄλλα δύο τάλαντα ἐκέρδησα).  He had doubled his $8,000,000 US into $16,000,000 US, as a wise trader.

 

The slave with five talents (Mt 25:20-25:20)

“The one who had received

The five talents

Came forward,

He brought

Five more talents.

He said.

‘Master!

You handed over

To me

Five talents.

See!

I have made

Five more talents.”

 

καὶ προσελθὼν ὁ τὰ πέντε τάλαντα λαβὼν προσήνεγκεν ἄλλα πέντε τάλαντα λέγων Κύριε, πέντε τάλαντά μοι παρέδωκας· ἴδε ἄλλα πέντε τάλαντα ἐκέρδησα.

 

This parable is unique to Matthew, but there is an equivalent in Luke, chapter 19:16, where the 1st slave had made 10 times more than what he had originally.  Here the first slave only doubles his investment.  Jesus said that the one slave who had received the five talents (καὶ προσελθὼν ὁ τὰ πέντε τάλαντα λαβὼν) came forward with 5 more talents (προσήνεγκεν ἄλλα πέντε τάλαντα).  He explained to his lord and master (λέγων Κύριε) that he had given him 5 talents (πέντε τάλαντά μοι παρέδωκας), but now he had made, acquired, or gained 5 more talents (ἴδε ἄλλα πέντε τάλαντα ἐκέρδησα).  He had doubled his $20,000,000 US into $40,000,000 US, as a wise trader.

Prediction of what is going to happen in Jerusalem (Mt 20:18-20:19)

“See!

We are going up

To Jerusalem.

The Son of Man

Will be handed over

To the chief priests

And scribes.

They will condemn him

To death.

Then they will hand him

Over to the gentiles.

He will be mocked.

He will be scourged.

He will be crucified.

On the third day

He will be raised up.”

 

Ἰδοὺ ἀναβαίνομεν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα, καὶ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου παραδοθήσεται τοῖς ἀρχιερεῦσιν καὶ γραμματεῦσιν, καὶ κατακρινοῦσιν αὐτὸν εἰς θάνατον,

καὶ παραδώσουσιν αὐτὸν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν εἰς τὸ ἐμπαῖξαι καὶ μαστιγῶσαι καὶ σταυρῶσαι, καὶ τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ ἐγερθήσεται.

 

Mark, chapter 10:33-34, and Luke, chapter 18:32-33, have something similar to this.  This would be the 3rd prediction of Jesus’ suffering, death, and resurrection after chapters 16:21 and 17:22-23.  Yet this is the most descriptive explanation.  Jesus told his trusted 12 leaders that they were going to Jerusalem (Ἰδοὺ ἀναβαίνομεν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα).  There the Son of Man would be handed over to the chief priests of Jerusalem and the scribes (καὶ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου παραδοθήσεται τοῖς ἀρχιερεῦσιν καὶ γραμματεῦσιν).  There was no mention of the Pharisees or Sadducees.  These priests and scribes were going to condemn him to death (καὶ κατακρινοῦσιν αὐτὸν εἰς θάνατον).  They would, in turn, hand him over to the gentiles (καὶ παραδώσουσιν αὐτὸν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν), meaning the Romans.  Then they would mock or ridicule him (εἰς τὸ ἐμπαῖξαι).  They would scourge him (καὶ μαστιγῶσαι).  Finally, they would crucify him (καὶ σταυρῶσαι), the common form of Roman execution.  However, on the 3rd day, the Son of Man would be raised up (καὶ τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ ἐγερθήσεται).  Obviously, Jesus was talking about himself, but he always used the term Son of Man.

The relationship of the Father and the Son (Mt 11:26-11:27)

“Yes!

Father!

Such was

Your gracious will.

All things

Have been handed over

To me,

By my Father.

No one knows

The Son,

Except the Father.

No one knows

The Father,

Except the Son,

And anyone to whom

The Son chooses

To reveal him.”

 

ναί, ὁ Πατήρ, ὅτι οὕτως εὐδοκία ἐγένετο ἔμπροσθέν σου

Πάντα μοι παρεδόθη ὑπὸ τοῦ Πατρός μου, καὶ οὐδεὶς ἐπιγινώσκει τὸν Υἱὸν εἰ μὴ ὁ Πατήρ, οὐδὲ τὸν Πατέρα τις ἐπιγινώσκει εἰ μὴ ὁ Υἱὸς καὶ ᾧ ἐὰν βούληται ὁ Υἱὸς ἀποκαλύψαι.

 

Matthew has Jesus explain his relationship to the Father in heaven.  Luke, chapter 10:22, has a similar statement, almost word for word, indicating a possible common Q source.  This is one of the few times that the synoptic gospels present Jesus with a clear knowledge of his relationship to the heavenly Father, as the Son.  The Father was well pleased to let this be known and happen because it was his will to do so (ναί, ὁ Πατήρ, ὅτι οὕτως εὐδοκία ἐγένετο ἔμπροσθέν σου).  The Father has handed over everything to his Son (Πάντα μοι παρεδόθη ὑπὸ τοῦ Πατρός μου). This is a profound theological statement indicating that the divine affiliation is very clear.  Jesus is the Son of the Father.  Only he and the Father know this.  No one really knows the Son, except the Father (Πάντα μοι παρεδόθη ὑπὸ τοῦ Πατρός μου).  The opposite is also true.   No one really knows the Father, except the Son (οὐδὲ τὸν Πατέρα τις ἐπιγινώσκει εἰ μὴ ὁ Υἱὸς).  However, Jesus, the Son, may decide or choose to tell or reveal this to others (καὶ ᾧ ἐὰν βούληται ὁ Υἱὸς ἀποκαλύψαι).  This is the gist of the gospel stories.  Jesus wanted to reveal his relationship to the Father to all his followers.