“These are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom, before any king reigned over the Israelites. Bela son of Beor reigned in Edom. The name of his city was Dinhabah. When Bela died, Jobab son of Zerah of Bozrah succeeded him as king. When Jobab died, Husham of the land of the Temanites succeeded him as king. When Husham died, Hadad son of Bedad, who defeated Midian in the country of Moab, succeeded him as king. The name of his city was Avith. When Hadad died, Samlah of Masrekah succeeded him as king. When Samlah died, Shaul of Rehoboth on the Euphrates succeeded him as king. When Shaul died, Baal-hanan son of Achbor succeeded him as king. When Baal-hanan son of Achbor died, Hadad succeeded him as king. The name of his city was Pai. His wife’s name was Mehetabel, the daughter of Matred, daughter of Mezahab. Hadad also died”
These are the descendants of Esau or Edom, the Edomite kings before there were kings in Israel. This is almost the exact wording of Genesis, chapter 36. (1) Bela was the son of Beor who lived in Dinhabah, and had a city named after him. There was another Beor later. (2) Jobab was the son of Zerab in Bozrah. Jobab was also the name of a son of Joktan. Zerab was a son of Reuel, the grandson of Esau. (3) Husham was from the land of the Temanites. (4) Hadad was the son of Bedad, who defeated Midian in Moam in Avith. Hadad was a common biblical name, and also the name of a Syrian god. (5) Samlah was from Masrekah. (6) Shaul was from Rehoboth, on the Euphrates. There was another Shaul, son of Simeon. (7) Baal-hunan was the son of Achbor. (8) Hadad was Hadar in Genesis. He was from Pai but Paul in Genesis. His wife was Mehetabel, the daughter of Matred, daughter of Mezahab. None of these names appear again in biblical literature.
“These are their genealogies. The first-born of Ishmael was Nebaioth, with Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam, Mishma, Dumah, Massa, Hadad, Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah. These are the sons of Ishmael.”
This section is based on Genesis, chapter 25, with has exactly the same names. Ishmael had 12 sons who then became 12 princes, much like Jacob who will have 12 sons. Ishmael was the hard luck outcast, but important because he was technically the first born of Abraham. Among his 12 sons, (1) Nebaioth will be the father of the people who settle in Edom. The descendents of (2) Kedar settled in the Arabian Desert. (3) Adbeel settled somewhere southwest of the Dead Sea. There are two other people named (4) Mibsam and (5) Mishma in the bible. There are a number of places named after (6) Dumah, the most famous on the Syrian border. The (7) Massa descendents settled somewhere near the Babylonian border. (8) Hadad frequently turns up as a name of some princes in Edom. A town in Syria is named after (9) Tema. (10) Jetur, (11) Naphish, and (12) Kedemah seem to be associated with the Hagrites. They mostly settled in the Arabian Desert. Thus you have the 12 tribes or sons of Ishmael just like there will be 12 tribes or sons of Jacob.
“Then Yahweh raised up an adversary against Solomon, Hadad the Edomite. He was of the royal house in Edom. When David was in Edom, and Joab the commander of the army went up to bury the dead, he killed every male in Edom. Joab and all Israel remained there six months, until he had eliminated every male in Edom. But Hadad fled to Egypt with some Edomites who were servants of his father. He was a young boy at the time. They set out from Midian and came to Paran. They took people with them from Paran and came to Egypt, to Pharaoh King of Egypt, who gave him a house, and assigned him an allowance of food, and gave him land. Hadad found great favor in the sight of Pharaoh, so that he gave him his sister-in-law for a wife, the sister of Queen Tahpenes. The sister of Tahpenes gave birth by him to his son Genubath, whom Tahpenes weaned in Pharaoh’s house. Genubath was in Pharaoh’s house among the children of Pharaoh. When Hadad heard in Egypt that David slept with his ancestors and that Joab the commander of the army was dead, Hadad said to Pharaoh. ‘Let me depart, that I may go to my own country.’ But Pharaoh said to him. ‘What do you lack with me that you now seek to go to your own country?’ He said. ‘No, do let me go.’”
Yahweh seems to send adversaries to Solomon. Hadad was a common name of people from Edom. There are at least 3 different leaders with that name. When last we heard from them in 2 Samuel, chapter 8, David was killing thousands of them, even if it was not exactly every male. Hadad as a young boy had fled to Egypt with his father’s servants. Pharaoh treated him well with a house, land, and allowance. In fact, he married Pharaoh’s sister-in-law. Pharaoh’s wife Queen Tahpenes weaned their son Genubath, who was raised like a child of Pharaoh. This is the only mention of Tahpenes and Genubath in biblical literature. Interesting enough, there was no mention of Pharaoh’s daughter who had married Solomon. I wonder how Pharaoh liked it that his daughter was among the other 699 wives of Solomon. When Hadad heard that both David and Joab were dead, he wanted to go back to his own country. Pharaoh reluctantly let him go. Pharaohs do not like to see people leave their country, just ask the Israelites.