Luke indicated that Jesus said that everyone who spoke a word (καὶ πᾶς ὃς ἐρεῖ λόγον) against the Son of Man (εἰς τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) would be forgiven. However, whoever blasphemes (βλασφημήσαντι) against the Holy Spirit (τῷ δὲ εἰς τὸ Ἅγιον Πνεῦμα) will not be forgiven (οὐκ ἀφεθήσεται). There are similar statements to this in Mark, chapter 3:28-30, and Matthew, chapter 12:31-32. It might be okay to disrespect the Son of Man, but it is quite another thing to speak against or blasphemy the Holy Spirit. Blasphemy was profaning the name of God. If you profaned the Holy Spirit you were hopeless. Only God could forgive sins. If you gave up on God and his Spirit, there was no hope of forgiveness. The Son of Man was so human that you could be forgiven for speaking against the Son of Man, Jesus, but not the Holy Spirit. Matthew indicated that Jesus told them with a solemn proclamation (Διὰ τοῦτο λέγω ὑμῖν) that God would forgive all human sins and blasphemies (πᾶσα ἁμαρτία καὶ βλασφημία ἀφεθήσεται τοῖς ἀνθρώποις). However, he would not forgive the sin of blasphemy against the Spirit (ἡ δὲ τοῦ Πνεύματος βλασφημία οὐκ ἀφεθήσεται). Humans could speak against the Son of Man (καὶ ὃς ἐὰν εἴπῃ λόγον κατὰ τοῦ Υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) and be forgiven (ἀφεθήσεται αὐτῷ). However, anyone who spoke against the Holy Spirit (ὃς δ’ ἂν εἴπῃ κατὰ τοῦ Πνεύματος τοῦ Ἁγίου) would not be forgiven (οὐκ ἀφεθήσεται αὐτῷ), either now or in the future (οὔτε ἐν τούτῳ τῷ αἰῶνι οὔτε ἐν τῷ μέλλοντι). Mark had Jesus tell them with a solemn proclamation (Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν) that God would forgive all the sins of the sons of men (ὅτι πάντα ἀφεθήσεται τοῖς υἱοῖς τῶν ἀνθρώπων) as well as whatever blasphemies they utter (καὶ αἱ βλασφημίαι, ὅσα ἐὰν βλασφημήσωσιν). These blasphemies were abusive or bad language about God. However, the blasphemy against the Holy Spirit was in a class all by itself. Mark indicated that Jesus said that whoever blasphemed against the Holy Spirit (ὃς δ’ ἂν βλασφημήσῃ εἰς τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον), would never be forgiven even in eternity (οὐκ ἔχει ἄφεσιν εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα). He would be guilty of an eternal sin (ἀλλὰ ἔνοχός ἐστιν αἰωνίου ἁμαρτήματος). Anyone who spoke against the Holy Spirit would not be forgiven either now or in the future, because this blasphemer had an unclean spirit (ὅτι ἔλεγον Πνεῦμα ἀκάθαρτον ἔχει). Therefore, he could not be cleansed. Have you ever derided the Holy Spirit?
There are similar statements to this in Matthew, chapter 12:31, and Luke, chapter 12:10. Both Matthew and Luke said that it might be okay to disrespect the Son of Man, but it was quite another thing to speak against or blasphemy the Holy Spirit. Blasphemy was profaning the name of God. If you profaned the Holy Spirit, you were hopeless. If you gave up on God and his Spirit, there was no hope of forgiveness. God would forgive all human sins and blasphemies. Whoever blasphemed against the Holy Spirit (ὃς δ’ ἂν βλασφημήσῃ εἰς τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον), would never be forgiven even in eternity (οὐκ ἔχει ἄφεσιν εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα). He would be guilty of an eternal sin (ἀλλὰ ἔνοχός ἐστιν αἰωνίου ἁμαρτήματος). Anyone who spoke against the Holy Spirit would not be forgiven either now or in the future.
The sailors tried to row their ship to land, but they were not successful, since the sea storm grew worse. Then, they cried out in a prayer to Yahweh. They did not want to perish because of one man. Neither did they want to become guilty by spilling innocent blood. They finally ended their prayer to Yahweh with “your will be done.” They seem to have accepted the God of Jonah, Yahweh, as their last resort. Thus, the reluctant Jonah has converted his fellow shipmates to worship Yahweh, the God of Israel.
For all the violence and slaughter that was done to Edom’s brother Jacob, shame would come upon the Edomites. They would be cut off forever. In other words, these Edomites were as guilty as the strangers who attacked Jerusalem. On that day of attack on the holy city, when the foreigners and strangers entered the gates of Jerusalem and took their wealth, the Edomites were like the attackers who were casting lots for Jerusalem. They were just like these invaders in their complicity. They did nothing to help the people of Jerusalem and Judah.
Yahweh, via Hosea, told northern Israel that she had become a prostitute. Now he warned that the southern Judah kingdom should not become guilty. They should not go to Gilgal, that was just east of Jericho. Neither should they go to Beth-aven or Bethel, the place of worship of the northern Israelites. They should not swear by Yahweh.
Yahweh, via Ezekiel, said that Jerusalem was worn out from all her adulteries. Nevertheless, she continued to carry on with her sexual activities. The adulterous men went into her just like their sexual acts with a whore. That is how they had sex with the two sisters, Oholah and Oholibah, these wanton lewd women. The result was that righteous judges would declare them guilty of adultery. However, they were also guilty of bloodshed. As they were adulteresses, blood was on their hands.
Yahweh told Ezekiel to speak to the city of Jerusalem because it was shedding blood within itself. Its time has come. It had been making idols and defiling itself. They have become guilty by the blood that they have shed. They have brought their day of punishment nearer. The appointed time of their years has come to an end. Yahweh was going to make them a disgrace and a mockery among the various nations and countries, whether they were near or far. Everyone would mock them as the infamous place full of tumult.
What happens if the righteous turn away from their righteousness, will they live? If they commit iniquity and do abominable things like the wicked do, will they live? None of their righteous deeds would be remembered. The guilty treacherous sins that they committed will bring them death.
The story of Sodom was based on Genesis, chapter 19. Sodom was a city in the plains, south of Jerusalem, near the Dead Sea. Jerusalem was like the city of Sodom because Jerusalem had done the same things as they had done. Sodom with her daughters was guilty of pride, too much food, and too easy of a life style. Sodom did not aid the poor and the needy. There was no explanation here of all the abominable things mentioned in Genesis. However, Yahweh had removed them. He had destroyed them, when he found out about their behavior.
Their Lord was right. Thus they and their ancestors were shamed. The Lord’s threatened disasters have come upon them. However, instead of asking for favors and forgiveness, they turned their thoughts and wicked hearts away from God. The Lord kept these calamities ready to use at any time since he was just. They were the people who would not obey the voice of the Lord in following his statutes. They were guilty of sinning against their Lord and God.