“But Peter began
He swore an oath.
‘I do not know
You are talking about.’”
ὁ δὲ ἤρξατο ἀναθεματίζειν καὶ ὀμνύναι ὅτι Οὐκ οἶδα τὸν ἄνθρωπον τοῦτον ὃν λέγετε
This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 26:74. There is something similar in Luke, chapter 22: 60, and John, chapter 18:27. However, Luke did not have the curse or the oath, while John said that Peter simply denied Jesus. Mark said that Peter began to curse (ὁ δὲ ἤρξατο ἀναθεματίζειν). He swore an oath that he did not know this man (καὶ ὀμνύειν ὅτι Οὐκ οἶδα τὸν ἄνθρωπον) that they were talking about (τοῦτον ὃν λέγετε). Thus, we have the 3rd public denial of Jesus by Peter that can be found in all 4 gospels. This great apostolic leader had failed his first major test just as Jesus had predicted, despite his bombastic earlier outbursts that it would never happen. Are you sometimes too bombastic?
Peter denied it.”
ὁ δὲ πάλιν ἠρνεῖτο.
This is similar to Matthew, chapter 26:72, Luke, chapter 22:58, and John, chapter 18:25, with some minor changes. All 4 gospels have this 2nd denial of Peter. Mark said that again Peter denied (ὁ δὲ πάλιν ἠρνεῖτο) that he was one of the followers of Jesus. In Matthew there was an oath with this denial. Peter, the great defender of Jesus, again denied him in public for a 2nd time, something he said that he would never do. Be careful what you say.
‘I do not know
What you are
Peter went out
Into the forecourt.
Then the cock crowed.”
ὁ δὲ ἠρνήσατο λέγων Οὔτε οἶδα οὔτε ἐπίσταμαι σὺ τί λέγεις. καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἔξω εἰς τὸ προαύλιον·
This is similar to Matthew, chapter 26:70-71, and Luke, chapter 22:57-58. John, chapter 18:17, has a simple denial. Peter was warming himself at the fire in the high priest’s courtyard, when a young servant girl of the high priest came up to him and said that he had been with Jesus. Mark said that Peter denied this (ὁ δὲ ἠρνήσατο). Peter said that he did not know or even understand what she was talking about (λέγων Οὔτε οἶδα οὔτε ἐπίσταμαι σὺ τί λέγεις). Then Peter walked away into the forecourt, the porch, or gateway to the courtyard (καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἔξω εἰς τὸ προαύλιον). Some ancient Orthodox manuscripts had the cock crow at this point (καὶ ἀλέκτωρ ἐφώνησεν). This first denial story of Peter, the great leader and follower of Jesus, was in all 4 gospels. Not all leaders are perfect.
Jesus said to them.
‘Why are you
To the test?
Let me see it!’”
ὁ δὲ εἰδὼς αὐτῶν τὴν ὑπόκρισιν εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Τί με πειράζετε; φέρετέ μοι δηνάριον ἵνα ἴδω.
There is something similar to this in Matthew, chapter 22:18-19, and in Luke, chapter 20:23-24. Mark said that Jesus was aware of their evil intentions or hypocrisy (ὁ δὲ εἰδὼς αὐτῶν τὴν ὑπόκρισιν). He asked them (εἶπεν αὐτοῖς) why were they testing or tempting him (Τί με πειράζετε)? This idea of testing or tricking Jesus was a common theme in the gospels. Jesus wanted them to bring him the Roman coin, a denarius (φέρετέ μοι δηνάριον), worth a little more than a US dollar. He wanted to see (ἵνα ἴδω) what coin was being used for paying the Roman poll tax.
The response of Peter can be found in all four gospels, Matthew, chapter 16:16, Luke, chapter 9:20, and John, 6:69, but all slightly different. The name of Peter is sometimes just Peter. Are the Greek “Christ” and the Hebrew “Messiah” the same? Matthew is the only one who had Peter say that Jesus was the son of the living God. Matthew is also the only one that mentioned the special relationship that Peter had with his Father in heaven. Peter gave a strong positive response in all four versions. Mark said that Peter replied (ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Πέτρος) to the question of Jesus immediately. He said that Jesus was the Christ (λέγει αὐτῷ Σὺ εἶ ὁ Χριστὸς) or the Messiah that they were expecting in Israel. Matthew had Jesus respond to Peter, but that was not in Mark. Peter, as the leader of this new group of Jesus followers, asserted this important belief about Jesus. For the first time, Jesus is called the Christ, the Messiah. Here Peter, in the name of the nascent Christian community, proclaimed that Jesus was the Messiah, the Christ.
Laid his hands
On his eyes again.
He looked intently.
His sight was restored.
He saw everything clearly.”
εἶτα πάλιν ἐπέθηκεν τὰς χεῖρας ἐπὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτοῦ, καὶ διέβλεψεν καὶ ἀπεκατέστη, καὶ ἐνέβλεπεν τηλαυγῶς ἅπαντα.
This story of the healing of the blind man at Bethsaida was unique to Mark. Then Jesus laid his hands on the blind man’s eyes again (εἶτα πάλιν ἐπέθηκεν τὰς χεῖρας ἐπὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτοῦ). This time the blind man opened his eyes intently (καὶ διέβλεψεν). His sight was fully restored (καὶ ἀπεκατέστη). Now he began to see everything clearly (καὶ ἐνέβλεπεν τηλαυγῶς ἅπαντα). Thus, this second stage of clear vision needed another physical act to complete the healing of this blind man. Perhaps, that is why Matthew and Luke did not include this story in their gospels.
Then there was
The son of Alphaeus,
καὶ Ἀνδρέαν καὶ Φίλιππον καὶ Βαρθολομαῖον καὶ Μαθθαῖον καὶ Θωμᾶν καὶ Ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ Ἁλφαίου καὶ Θαδδαῖον καὶ Σίμωνα τὸν Καναναῖον
This section about naming the 12 apostles is similar to Matthew, chapter 10:3-4, and Luke, chapter 6:14-16. This list can also be compared to the list in the Acts of the Apostles, chapter 1:13. Except for Matthew and Andrew, the other 6 apostles are not mentioned by name elsewhere in the gospels. Andrew (καὶ Ἀνδρέαν), the brother of Simon, is first here, but without being called his brother. Then there was Philip (Φίλιππον), Bartholomew (καὶ Βαρθολομαῖον), Matthew (καὶ Μαθθαῖον), not called Levi, Thomas (καὶ Θωμᾶν), James, the son of Alphaeus (Ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ Ἁλφαίου), Thaddaeus (καὶ Θαδδαῖον), Simon the Cananaean (καὶ Σίμωνα τὸν Καναναῖον). Obviously, this Simon may have not been Jewish since he is called a Cananaean. Sometimes, this may have been a reference to the Zealots. In Mark 2:14, Levi or Matthew was called the son of Alphaeus as James is here. However, Thaddaeus was only listed by Matthew and Mark, while Luke and the Acts listed him as Jude or Judas, the son of James, not Thaddaeus. Are these two-different people or just two different names? Is this Jude Thaddeus like Simon Peter and Levi Matthew? Did he have a Jewish and a Greek name?
“After his resurrection,
They came out
Of the tombs.
The holy city.
To many people.”
καὶ ἐξελθόντες ἐκ τῶν μνημείων μετὰ τὴν ἔγερσιν αὐτοῦ εἰσῆλθον εἰς τὴν ἁγίαν πόλιν καὶ ἐνεφανίσθησαν πολλοῖς.
Once again, this is unique to Matthew, since the other 3 gospels do not mention any appearance of holy dead people in Jerusalem. Matthew clearly said that after the resurrection of Jesus (μετὰ τὴν ἔγερσιν αὐτοῦ), these holy righteous ones came out of their tombs (καὶ ἐξελθόντες ἐκ τῶν μνημείων). They entered the holy city (εἰσῆλθον εἰς τὴν ἁγίαν πόλιν) of Jerusalem, where they appeared to many people (καὶ ἐνεφανίσθησαν πολλοῖς). Thus, the general resurrection of the dead at the end times had already occurred.
“The tombs also
Of the saints,
Who had fallen asleep.
καὶ τὰ μνημεῖα ἀνεῴχθησαν καὶ πολλὰ σώματα τῶν κεκοιμημένων ἁγίων ἠγέρθησαν·
This is unique to Matthew, since the other 3 gospels do not mention anything about tombs, bodies, or saints being raised. However, Matthew clearly said that the tombs were also opened (καὶ τὰ μνημεῖα ἀνεῴχθησαν), so that many bodies of the holy saints, who had fallen asleep (καὶ πολλὰ σώματα τῶν κεκοιμημένων ἁγίων), arose or were raised up (ἠγέρθησαν). It was the general Jewish expectation that at the end times, the Day of Yahweh, that the dead would rise, especially among the Pharisees. The holy ones or saints were the righteous ones who had died before Jesus.
“After a little while,
Bystanders came up.
They said to Peter.
You are also
One of them.
Then he began
He swore an oath.
‘I do not know this man.’”
μετὰ μικρὸν δὲ προσελθόντες οἱ ἑστῶτες εἶπον τῷ Πέτρῳ Ἀληθῶς καὶ σὺ ἐξ αὐτῶν εἶ, καὶ γὰρ ἡ λαλιά σου δῆλόν σε ποιεῖ.
τότε ἤρξατο καταθεματίζειν καὶ ὀμνύειν ὅτι Οὐκ οἶδα τὸν ἄνθρωπον.
This is almost word for word in Mark, chapter 14:70-71. There is something similar in Luke, chapter 22:59-60, and John, chapter 18:26-27. However, Luke did not have the curse or the oath, while John said that the man recognized Peter because he was a relative of the one whose ear Peter had cut off. Matthew and Mark said that after a little while (μετὰ μικρὸν), some of the bystanders said to Peter (οἱ ἑστῶτες εἶπον τῷ Πέτρῳ) that he certainly was one of the followers of Jesus (Ἀληθῶς καὶ σὺ ἐξ αὐτῶν εἶ), because of his northern Galilee accent in his speech that betrayed him (καὶ γὰρ ἡ λαλιά σου δῆλόν σε ποιεῖ). Then Peter began to curse (τότε ἤρξατο καταθεματίζειν). He swore an oath that he did not know this man (καὶ ὀμνύειν ὅτι Οὐκ οἶδα τὸν ἄνθρωπον). Thus, we have the 3rd public denial of Jesus by Peter that can be found in all 4 gospels. This apostolic leader had failed his first major test just as Jesus had predicted, despite his bombastic earlier outbursts that it would never happen.