“On the way to Jerusalem,
Jesus was going through
Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ πορεύεσθαι εἰς Ἱερουσαλὴμ, καὶ αὐτὸς διήρχετο διὰ μέσον Σαμαρίας καὶ Γαλιλαίας
Only Luke has this story about the curing of the ten lepers. Luke indicated that Jesus was on his way to Jerusalem (Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ πορεύεσθαι εἰς Ἱερουσαλὴμ). He went through a region between Samaria and Galilee (καὶ αὐτὸς διήρχετο διὰ μέσον Σαμαρίας καὶ Γαλιλαίας). Jesus continued heading towards Jerusalem so that he had to pass through this Samaritan area that was next to Galilee. Luke had already shown a greater openness to the Samaritans than the other gospel writers. Are you open to neighbors who do not think like you do?
“The people of Nineveh
Will rise up
At the judgment
Against this generation.
They will condemn it.
Because they repented
At the preaching
ἄνδρες Νινευεῖται ἀναστήσονται ἐν τῇ κρίσει μετὰ τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης καὶ κατακρινοῦσιν αὐτήν· ὅτι μετενόησαν εἰς τὸ κήρυγμα Ἰωνᾶ, καὶ ἰδοὺ πλεῖον Ἰωνᾶ ὧδε.
Luke also indicated that Jesus said that the people or men of Nineveh would rise up (ἄνδρες Νινευεῖται ἀναστήσονται) at the judgment time (ἐν τῇ κρίσει) against this generation (μετὰ τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης). They will condemn them (καὶ κατακρινοῦσιν αὐτήν) because they had repented or had a change of heart (ὅτι μετενόησαν) because of the preaching of Jonah (εἰς τὸ κήρυγμα Ἰωνᾶ). However, someone greater than Jonah is here (καὶ ἰδοὺ πλεῖον Ἰωνᾶ ὧδε). This saying about the positive response of repentance among the men of Nineveh, where the prophet Jonah had preached, can also be found in Matthew, chapter 12:41, so that perhaps this is a Q source. Once again, these gospel writers and Jesus went back to the story of the prophet Jonah, chapter 3:5. However, this story came first in Matthew, preceding the story about the Queen of the South. He said that those people of Nineveh, who were long dead, would rise up at the judgment time against this generation. They would condemn these contemporary people because they had repented during the 40-day preaching of Jonah in Nineveh. Matthew then reminded them that someone greater than Jonah was there among them, Jesus himself. Both these stories were about gentiles who praised Jewish leaders. Do you repent after listening to the preaching of Jesus?
“Whenever you enter a town,
And its people
What is set before you!”
καὶ εἰς ἣν ἂν πόλιν εἰσέρχησθε καὶ δέχωνται ὑμᾶς, ἐσθίετε τὰ παρατιθέμενα ὑμῖν,
Luke uniquely had Jesus continue to emphasize what he had just said. Whenever they entered a town (καὶ εἰς ἣν ἂν πόλιν εἰσέρχησθε) where people welcomed them (καὶ δέχωνται ὑμᾶς), they were to eat (ἐσθίετε) what was set before them (τὰ παρατιθέμενα ὑμῖν). Luke was the only one of the gospel writers to mention that these 70 disciples should eat what they were given, instead of being picky and demanding special food. Perhaps this was also an indication that they might be able to accept non-kosher food if that is all that somebody had available. Are you picky about what you eat?
“Jesus sent messengers
Ahead of him.
On their way,
Of the Samaritans,
To make things
Ready for him.”
καὶ ἀπέστειλεν ἀγγέλους πρὸ προσώπου αὐτοῦ. καὶ πορευθέντες εἰσῆλθον εἰς κώμην Σαμαρειτῶν, ὥστε ἑτοιμάσαι αὐτῷ·
Luke uniquely had this story about the Samaritan villages, since Mark and Matthew had Jesus not go into Samaria, but pass over to the other side of the Jordan on the east bank of the Jordan River. Luke said that Jesus sent messengers (καὶ ἀπέστειλεν ἀγγέλους) ahead of him or before his face (πρὸ προσώπου αὐτοῦ), that would have been normal for a traveling large group. On their way (καὶ πορευθέντες), they entered (εἰσῆλθον) a village of the Samaritans (εἰς κώμην Σαμαρειτῶν), to make things ready for Jesus (ὥστε ἑτοιμάσαι αὐτῷ). The Samaritans were part of the former northern kingdom of Israel with Samaria their capital. However, over time, since the 8th century BCE, they had become a distinct ethnic group that was in dispute with the Judean Jews, since the territory of Samaria was between Judea and Galilee. Luke, like here, showed Jesus interacting with the Samaritans more than any of the other gospel writers. Have you ever told people that you were just passing by on your way to some place else?
Spread through out
And all the surrounding country.”
καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ὁ λόγος οὗτος ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ περὶ αὐτοῦ καὶ πάσῃ τῇ περιχώρῳ.
Thus, it was not unexpected that Luke said that the word or this report about Jesus spread (καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ὁ λόγος οὗτος) throughout Judea (ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ) and all the surrounding country (καὶ πάσῃ τῇ περιχώρῳ), a common comment after most miracles that Jesus performed. Jesus was in Nain, Galilee when he performed the miracle of raising this anonymous widow’s only son from the dead, yet even Judea knew about it. This whole incident was unique to Luke and not found among the other gospel writers. How do you spread the word about Jesus?
All of them.
They glorified God.
They were filled
‘We have seen
Strange things today.’”
καὶ ἔκστασις ἔλαβεν ἅπαντας, καὶ ἐδόξαζον τὸν Θεόν, καὶ ἐπλήσθησαν φόβου λέγοντες ὅτι Εἴδομεν παράδοξα σήμερον.
Luke and the other gospel writers said that not only the cured paralytic but all the people glorified God. Did this include the Pharisees and Scribes? Luke said that amazement seized all of them (καὶ ἔκστασις ἔλαβεν ἅπαντας). They glorified God (καὶ ἐδόξαζον τὸν Θεόν). They were filled with awesome fear (καὶ ἐπλήσθησαν φόβου). They said (λέγοντες) that they had seen remarkable or strange things that day (ὅτι Εἴδομεν παράδοξα σήμερον). This saying about the people being amazed is nearly the same as in Mark, chapter 2:12, and Matthew, chapter 9:8. Mark said that they were all amazed, or marveled at what they had just witnessed. They, not just the paralytic, glorified, honored, or praised God. They said to one another that they had never seen anything like this before, because Jesus had a lot of power. Matthew said that the crowds were in awe, or were amazed, or marveled at what they had just witnessed. They glorified, honored, or praised God, since God had given so much authority to these men. Notice that this is in the plural “men”, not just Jesus, one man, but potentially to his followers as well. Thus, ends the story of the cured paralytic and the hole in the roof with the Pharisees and Scribes upset.
Then Jesus began
To say to them.
Has been fulfilled
In your hearing.’”
ἤρξατο δὲ λέγειν πρὸς αὐτοὺς ὅτι Σήμερον πεπλήρωται ἡ γραφὴ αὕτη ἐν τοῖς ὠσὶν ὑμῶν
This is unique to Luke, as he presented the teaching of Jesus. Luke indicated that Jesus began to say to the assembled crowd (ἤρξατο δὲ λέγειν πρὸς αὐτοὺς) in this Nazareth synagogue, that today (ὅτι Σήμερον) this scripture has been fulfilled (πεπλήρωται ἡ γραφὴ αὕτη) in their hearing (ἐν τοῖς ὠσὶν ὑμῶν). Scripture fulfilled was a common theme of the gospel writers. Jesus implied that the Scripture passage he had just read referred to him.
About thirty years old
When he began
Καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν Ἰησοῦς ἀρχόμενος ὡσεὶ ἐτῶν τριάκοντα,
This saying is unique to Luke. He was the only one of the gospel writers who put an age on Jesus. He said that Jesus was about 30 years old when he began his work (Καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν Ἰησοῦς ἀρχόμενος ὡσεὶ ἐτῶν τριάκοντα). Perhaps this is an allusion to King David who was 30 when he became king in 2 Samuel, chapter 5:4. For some the age of 30 was considered mature. Anyway, this concept of Jesus being about 30 with a 3-year public ministry put his death at age 33, a common Christian tradition.
Came from heaven.
‘You are my Son!
I am well pleased
καὶ φωνὴν ἐξ οὐρανοῦ γενέσθαι Σὺ εἶ ὁ Υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπητός, ἐν σοὶ εὐδόκησα.
As in Mark, chapter 1:11, Luke, had a voice from heaven address Jesus directly. In Matthew, chapter 3:17, this voice from the heavens did not address Jesus personally, while John, chapter 1, did not have any mention of a voice from heaven at all after the baptism of Jesus. The idea of a heavenly voice had a very strong tradition in the Hebrew Bible, especially among the prophets. Luke said that this voice came from heaven (καὶ φωνὴν ἐξ οὐρανοῦ γενέσθαι). It said that Jesus was his beloved son (Σὺ εἶ ὁ Υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπητός). He, the heavenly Father was well pleased with him (ἐν σοὶ εὐδόκησα). All this was in the second person singular. God the Father said that Jesus was his most beloved son in whom he was well pleased. The gospel writers did not clarify whether others saw and heard these things. In fact, this saying and incident after the baptism of Jesus might have been the basis for a Subordinationschristologie that Jesus the Son was somehow subordinate to the Father. According to this adoption theory, God the Father had to send his Spirit to anoint and empower Jesus in this concrete event, before he could begin his public ministry. This adoptionism theory, and the Christological disputes of the later 4th century CE, led to the diminution of this baptismal event within later patristic and medieval theological circles. Nevertheless, the baptism of Jesus has become the starting point for any theological reflection about early Christian initiation practices. It is not clear whether all the primitive Christian communities linked the baptism of Jesus with the baptism of the new followers of Christ, despite the fact that many post-apostolic Christians did so.
With many other exhortations,
The good news gospel
To the people.”
Πολλὰ μὲν οὖν καὶ ἕτερα παρακαλῶν εὐηγγελίζετο τὸν λαόν·
Only Luke has this explanation that John the Baptist with many other exhortations (Πολλὰ μὲν οὖν καὶ ἕτερα παρακαλῶν), other than those recounted here, proclaimed the good news to the people (εὐηγγελίζετο τὸν λαόν). Was this the same good news or gospel (εὐηγγελίζετο) that Jesus would later preach? Luke was the only one among the other gospel writers who linked John and Jesus as relatives in chapter 1:36. John’s mother, Elizabeth, and Jesus’ mother, Mary, were relatives of some sort, thus making their children relatives or cousins also. They could be compared in some ways to Aaron and Moses or the later Peter and Paul. One was superior to the other, but the other played an indispensable role. John the Baptist was a Jewish itinerant preacher in the early first century CE. He used baptism, some kind of dipping in water, as the central symbol or sacrament of his messianic movement. Thus, he became known as the one who baptizes, the Baptizer, John the Baptist. This John certainly had a relationship with Jesus, but the exact relationship between John and Jesus is also problematic. They may have originally been co-workers. However, they separated as Jesus went along a different route. However, the shadow of John the Baptist appeared again and again in the biblical stories about Jesus and his apostles. Some believe that Jesus may have been an early follower or disciple of John, but the textual indications are that John saw himself as clearly subservient to Jesus. Some of Jesus’ early followers had previously been followers of John, such as the apostle Andrew, the brother of Simon, in John, chapter 1:40, and in the Acts of the Apostles, chapter 19:2-6. There may have been also some contact between John the Baptist and the Qumran-Essene community, where the Dead Sea Scrolls were found. John might have been associated with them or part of their community for a while. Thus, John the Baptist has been revered as a prophet and a Christian saint throughout the centuries.