The ephod (Ex 28:6-28:14)

“They shall make the ephod of gold, of blue, purple, and crimson yarns, and of fine twisted linen, skillfully worked.  It shall have two shoulder-pieces attached to its two edges, so that it may be joined together.  The decorated band on it shall be of the same workmanship and materials, of gold, of blue, purple, and crimson yarns, and of fine twisted linen.  You shall take two onyx stones, and engrave on them the names of the sons of Israel, six of their names on the one stone, and the names of the remaining six on the other stone, in the order of their birth.  As a gem-cutter engraves signets, so you shall engrave the two stones with the names of the sons of Israel.  You shall mount them in settings of gold filigree.  You shall set the two stones on the shoulder-pieces of the ephod, as stones of remembrance for the sons of Israel.  Aaron shall bear their names before Yahweh on his two shoulders for remembrance.   You shall make settings of gold filigree, and two chains of pure gold, twisted like cords.  You shall attach the corded chains to the settings.”

The ephod is an old cultural vestment, an embroidered garment, believed to be like an apron with shoulder straps, worn by Hebrew priests in ancient Israel.  It was made of gold, as well as blue, purple, and crimson yarns and fine twisted linen.  The two shoulder pieces that were joined together had two onyx stones, like a cameo, with the engraved names of the twelve tribes, six on each stone in the order of their birth, one on each shoulder as a remembrance.  On top of that, you have two gold chains attached to these stones.  This was a very colorful piece of clothing or apron, much like the later medieval Christian chasubles.