“There is one God,
From whom are all things
And for whom we exist,
And the one Lord,
Through whom are all things
And through whom we exist.”
ἀλλ’ ἡμῖν εἷς Θεὸς ὁ Πατήρ, ἐξ οὗ τὰ πάντα καὶ ἡμεῖς εἰς αὐτόν, καὶ εἷς Κύριος Ἰησοῦς Χριστός, δι’ οὗ τὰ πάντα καὶ ἡμεῖς δι’ αὐτοῦ.
Paul said that there is one God (ἀλλ’ ἡμῖν εἷς Θεὸς), the Father (ὁ Πατήρ), from whom are all things (ἐξ οὗ τὰ πάντα) and for whom we exist (καὶ ἡμεῖς εἰς αὐτόν), and the one Lord (καὶ εἷς Κύριος), Jesus Christ (Ἰησοῦς Χριστός), through whom are all things (δι’ οὗ τὰ πάντα) and through whom we exist (καὶ ἡμεῖς δι’ αὐτοῦ). Paul clearly stated that there was only one God, the Father, who made all things. We owe our existence to God, the Father. Also, there was one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom all things and our own existence come from. Everything is related to God, the Father, and his Son, the Lord Jesus Christ. The Jewish Hebrew tradition had called Yahweh “the Lord”. Now Paul was using this term “Lord” for Jesus Christ to show his equality with Yahweh, the God of Israel, our Father. We owe our existence to God the Father and our Lord Jesus Christ, since the Lord Jesus Christ is equal to God the Father. Do you appreciate God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ?
And the chief priests
That he had told
ἔγνωσαν γὰρ ὅτι πρὸς αὐτοὺς εἶπεν τὴν παραβολὴν ταύτην.
Luke said that the Scribes (οἱ γραμματεῖς) and the chief priests (καὶ οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς) realized or perceived (ἔγνωσαν γὰρ) that he had told this parable against them (ὅτι πρὸς αὐτοὺς εἶπεν τὴν παραβολὴν ταύτην). There was something similar in Matthew chapter 21:45, and Mark, chapter 12:12. Mark said that the unnamed “they” realized or knew that Jesus had told this parable against them (ἔγνωσαν γὰρ ὅτι πρὸς αὐτοὺς τὴν παραβολὴν εἶπεν). They were the wicked evil tenants of the vineyard. The landowner was God the Father. The slaves were the Israelite prophets, while Jesus was the Son of the Father. In Matthew, the chief priests and the Pharisees (οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι) did not have to wait for an explanation of this parable about the wicked evil tenants of the vineyard. They knew or realized, on hearing (Καὶ ἀκούσαντες) this parable story (τὰς παραβολὰς αὐτοῦ), that these evil tenants that Jesus was talking about was them (ἔγνωσαν ὅτι περὶ αὐτῶν λέγει). Thus, the Jerusalem Jewish religious leaders understood that this parable was clearly aimed at them. Have you ever realized that people were talking about you?
They threw him
Out of the vineyard.
They killed him.
What then will the owner
Of the vineyard
Do to them?”
καὶ ἐκβαλόντες αὐτὸν ἔξω τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος ἀπέκτειναν. τί οὖν ποιήσει αὐτοῖς ὁ κύριος τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος;
Luke indicated that Jesus said that these farmer tenants threw the beloved son of the vineyard owner out of the vineyard (καὶ ἐκβαλόντες αὐτὸν ἔξω τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος). They killed him (ἀπέκτειναν). What do you think that the lord or owner of the vineyard was going to do to them (τί οὖν ποιήσει αὐτοῖς ὁ κύριος τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος)? This parable of the killing of the landowner’s son can be found in Matthew, chapter 21:39, and Mark, chapter 12:8, almost word for word. Mark indicated that Jesus continued with this story. Thus, these wicked tenants seized the owner’s son (καὶ λαβόντες) and killed him (ἀπέκτειναν αὐτόν). Finally, they threw him out or cast him out of the vineyard (καὶ ἐξέβαλον αὐτὸν ἔξω τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος). Both Luke and Matthew had him thrown out before he was killed, but Mark said that they killed him and then threw him out. Matthew indicated that Jesus said that these wicked tenants seized the son (καὶ λαβόντες αὐτὸν) of the vineyard owner and cast him out of the vineyard (ἐξέβαλον ἔξω τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος), where they killed him (καὶ ἀπέκτειναν). The meaning of this parable was becoming clearer. The landowner was God the Father. The vineyard was Israel. The tenants were the Jewish religious leaders. The slaves were the Israelite prophets. Jesus was the beloved son of the Father. He was killed either outside of Jerusalem, the vineyard, or thrown out after his death. Clearly, Jesus would not have to explain this parable to his disciples and apostles. Did you get the meaning of this story?
“Then Jesus said to him.
A great dinner banquet.
ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Ἄνθρωπός τις ἐποίει δεῖπνον μέγα, καὶ ἐκάλεσεν πολλούς,
Luke indicated that Jesus told a parable. He said to this man (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Ἄνθρωπός) that someone gave a great dinner banquet (τις ἐποίει δεῖπνον μέγα). He invited many people (καὶ ἐκάλεσεν πολλούς). This is somewhat similar to Matthew, chapter 22:2, where instead of “someone” it was “a king” who was giving a great wedding dinner for his son. There may be a common Q source for this story or parable. Matthew had Jesus compare the kingdom of heaven (Ὡμοιώθη ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν) to this male king (ἀνθρώπῳ βασιλεῖ) who had prepared a great wedding banquet for his son (ὅστις ἐποίησεν γάμους τῷ υἱῷ αὐτοῦ). This was an obvious allusion to the king, God the Father, giving a wedding banquet feast for his son, Jesus. Here in Luke, it was only a great feast. Both stories have many people being invited to this great feast. Have you ever been invited to a great dinner banquet?
He did not answer.
The high priest
The Messiah Christ?
The Son of the Blessed One?’”
ὁ δὲ ἐσιώπα καὶ οὐκ ἀπεκρίνατο οὐδέν. πάλιν ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς ἐπηρώτα αὐτὸν καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ Σὺ εἶ ὁ Χριστὸς ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Εὐλογητοῦ;
This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 26:63. In Luke, chapter 22:66-70, there was something similar. However, there was nothing like this in John, chapter 18:19, where there was a discussion of the high priest with Jesus, but more about his teachings. Mark said that Jesus was originally silent (ὁ δὲ ἐσιώπα). He did not answer the high priest (καὶ οὐκ ἀπεκρίνατο οὐδέν). Then the high priest again asked Jesus directly (πάλιν ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς ἐπηρώτα αὐτὸν). Was he the Messiah Christ (καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ Σὺ εἶ ὁ Χριστὸς)? Was he the Son of the Blessed One (ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Εὐλογητοῦ)? Matthew had said that the high priest Caiaphas was going to put him under oath according to the living God. Jesus was to tell everyone there whether he was the Christ, the Messiah, the Son of God. Luke indicated that they asked Jesus whether he was the Messiah Christ or the Son of God. Thus, this was a clear question about the divine claims of Jesus, particularly his messianic Christ role and his relationship to God the Father.
“When they realized
That he had told
To arrest Jesus.
But they feared
They left him.
They went away.”
Καὶ ἐζήτουν αὐτὸν κρατῆσαι, καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν τὸν ὄχλον· ἔγνωσαν γὰρ ὅτι πρὸς αὐτοὺς τὴν παραβολὴν εἶπεν. καὶ ἀφέντες αὐτὸν ἀπῆλθον.
This was an admission by Jewish religious leaders, the chief priests and the Pharisees, as named in Matthew chapter 21:45-46, and Luke, chapter 20:19, but not here, about the deteriorating situation. Mark said that the unnamed “they” were trying or seeking to get a hold of or arrest Jesus (Καὶ ἐζήτουν αὐτὸν κρατῆσαι). However, they were afraid of the crowd (καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν τὸν ὄχλον). They realized or knew that Jesus had told this parable against them (ἔγνωσαν γὰρ ὅτι πρὸς αὐτοὺς τὴν παραβολὴν εἶπεν), the wicked evil tenants of the vineyard. The landowner was God the Father. The slaves were the Israelite prophets, while Jesus was the son of the Father. Thus, they left him (καὶ ἀφέντες αὐτὸν) and went away (ἀπῆλθον). This will not turn out well.
“They seized him.
They killed him.
They threw him
Out of the vineyard.”
καὶ λαβόντες ἀπέκτειναν αὐτόν, καὶ ἐξέβαλον αὐτὸν ἔξω τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος.
This parable of the killing of the landowner’s son can be found in Matthew, chapter 21:39, and Luke, chapter 20:15, almost word for word. Mark indicated that Jesus continued with this story. Thus, these wicked tenants seized his son (καὶ λαβόντες). Then they killed him (ἀπέκτειναν αὐτόν). Finally, they threw him out or cast him out of the vineyard (καὶ ἐξέβαλον αὐτὸν ἔξω τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος). The meaning of this parable was becoming clearer. The landowner was God the Father. The tenants were the Jewish religious leaders. The slaves were the Israelite prophets. Jesus was the son of the Father. He was killed and thrown outside of Jerusalem, the vineyard. Clearly, Jesus would not have to explain this parable to his disciples and apostles.
Immediately drove him out
Into the wilderness.”
Καὶ εὐθὺς τὸ Πνεῦμα αὐτὸν ἐκβάλλει εἰς τὴν ἔρημον.
Both Matthew, chapter 4:1, and Luke, chapter 4:1, have the Holy Spirit lead Jesus into the desert just like here. Having just received the Holy Spirit at his baptism with John, this same Holy Spirit immediately drove Jesus out (Καὶ εὐθὺς τὸ Πνεῦμα αὐτὸν ἐκβάλλει) into the wilderness (εἰς τὴν ἔρημον). The Israelites had been in the wilderness during their exodus from Egypt. John the Baptist was also preaching and baptizing in the desert wilderness. The wilderness or the desert was a place of terror, not civilized. The Holy Spirit and God the Father wanted Jesus to experience the difficulties of this desolate arid land.
Came from heaven.
‘You are my Son!
The Beloved one!
I am well pleased.’”
καὶ φωνὴ ἐγένετο ἐκ τῶν οὐρανῶν Σὺ εἶ ὁ Υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπητός, ἐν σοὶ εὐδόκησα.
This voice from the heavens addressed Jesus personally, as in Luke, chapter 3:22. However, in Matthew, chapter 3:17, the voice was not directed at Jesus, while John had no mention of a voice from heaven. Mark said that a voice came from the heavens (καὶ φωνὴ ἐγένετο ἐκ τῶν οὐρανῶν) that said that Jesus was his beloved son (Σὺ εἶ ὁ Υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπητός) with whom he was well pleased (ἐν σοὶ εὐδόκησα). The idea of a heavenly voice had a very strong tradition in the Jewish writings of the Hebrew Bible, especially among the prophets. The gospel writers did not clarify whether others saw or heard these things. In fact, this saying and incident after the baptism of Jesus might have been the basis for a Subordinationschristologie that Jesus the Son was somehow subordinate to the Father. According to this adoption theory, God the Father had to send his Spirit to anoint and empower Jesus in this concrete event, before he could begin his public ministry. This adoptionist theory, and the Christological disputes of the later 4th century CE, led to the diminution of this baptismal event within later patristic and medieval theological circles. Nevertheless, the baptism of Jesus has become the starting point for any theological reflection about early Christian initiation practices. It is not clear whether all the primitive Christian communities linked the baptism of Jesus with the baptism of the new followers of Christ, despite the fact that many post-apostolic Christians did so.
This second narrative centered around the Sermon on the Mount and the famous so-called Beatitudes. The first beatitude was about poverty, while the second beatitude was about mourning. The third beatitude was about the meek or the humble. The fourth beatitude was about righteousness. The fifth beatitude was on mercy, while the sixth beatitude was about the pure of heart. The seventh beatitude was on peacemakers, while the eighth beatitude was on persecution. There was a grand blessing for the persecuted Christians, who were the salt of the earth and the light of the world. They had to value and become the lighted lamp.
Next came the law and the prophets. The law with all its commandments remained. The righteous ones would not murder, nor would they get angry with insults. They would offer their gifts at the Temple. They would pay their debts and not commit adultery. Jesus warned against the sinning eye and the sinning right hand. He favored the traditional divorce stance, but warned about marrying a divorced woman. They should not bear false witness, nor swear at all, since they should have a simple speech. No longer was it an eye for an eye, but rather turn the other cheek with unusual kindness. They were to love their enemies and their heavenly Father with a perfect love.
The followers of Jesus should fast and pray. We should have piety with almsgiving. Our charity and prayer should be secret with short prayers. Thus, there was the famous “Our Father” prayer. The first part of the Lord’s prayer was about God the Father. The second part of the Lord’s prayer was about our human problems. We should seek forgiveness and fast in secret. We should not want earthly treasures, but heavenly treasures. We need to have a healthy eye because we cannot serve two masters.
We should trust in Providence. We do not need to worry. Just look at the birds who do not worry. The lilies of the field have more beauty than Solomon in all his glory. Seek the kingdom of heaven first and you will not have to worry about tomorrow.
As far as judgment was concerned, do not judge the speck in the eye of your neighbor. Be careful with your holy treasures. Be seekers and give to your sons. Pray to your heavenly Father and follow the golden rule. The gate was narrow and there were many false prophets. Know them by their fruits. The sound tree has good fruits. Cut down the bad tree. Seek the kingdom of heaven. Stay away from evildoers. Wise men build on a rock foundation, while the foolish ones build on a sand foundation. The crowds were astonished at the authority of Jesus.