The parable was aimed at the chief priests and the Scribes (Lk 20:19-20:19)

“The Scribes

And the chief priests

Realized

That he had told

This parable

Against them.”

 

ἔγνωσαν γὰρ ὅτι πρὸς αὐτοὺς εἶπεν τὴν παραβολὴν ταύτην.

 

Luke said that the Scribes (οἱ γραμματεῖς) and the chief priests (καὶ οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς) realized or perceived (ἔγνωσαν γὰρ) that he had told this parable against them (ὅτι πρὸς αὐτοὺς εἶπεν τὴν παραβολὴν ταύτην).  There was something similar in Matthew chapter 21:45, and Mark, chapter 12:12.  Mark said that the unnamed “they” realized or knew that Jesus had told this parable against them (ἔγνωσαν γὰρ ὅτι πρὸς αὐτοὺς τὴν παραβολὴν εἶπεν).  They were the wicked evil tenants of the vineyard.  The landowner was God the Father.  The slaves were the Israelite prophets, while Jesus was the Son of the Father.  In Matthew, the chief priests and the Pharisees (οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι) did not have to wait for an explanation of this parable about the wicked evil tenants of the vineyard.  They knew or realized, on hearing (Καὶ ἀκούσαντες) this parable story (τὰς παραβολὰς αὐτοῦ), that these evil tenants that Jesus was talking about was them (ἔγνωσαν ὅτι περὶ αὐτῶν λέγει).  Thus, the Jerusalem Jewish religious leaders understood that this parable was clearly aimed at them.  Have you ever realized that people were talking about you?

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They killed him (Lk 20:15-20:15)

“Thus,

They threw him

Out of the vineyard.

They killed him.

What then will the owner

Of the vineyard

Do to them?”

 

καὶ ἐκβαλόντες αὐτὸν ἔξω τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος ἀπέκτειναν. τί οὖν ποιήσει αὐτοῖς ὁ κύριος τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος;

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that these farmer tenants threw the beloved son of the vineyard owner out of the vineyard (καὶ ἐκβαλόντες αὐτὸν ἔξω τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος).  They killed him (ἀπέκτειναν).  What do you think that the lord or owner of the vineyard was going to do to them (τί οὖν ποιήσει αὐτοῖς ὁ κύριος τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος)?  This parable of the killing of the landowner’s son can be found in Matthew, chapter 21:39, and Mark, chapter 12:8, almost word for word.  Mark indicated that Jesus continued with this story.  Thus, these wicked tenants seized the owner’s son (καὶ λαβόντες) and killed him (ἀπέκτειναν αὐτόν).  Finally, they threw him out or cast him out of the vineyard (καὶ ἐξέβαλον αὐτὸν ἔξω τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος).  Both Luke and Matthew had him thrown out before he was killed, but Mark said that they killed him and then threw him out.  Matthew indicated that Jesus said that these wicked tenants seized the son (καὶ λαβόντες αὐτὸν) of the vineyard owner and cast him out of the vineyard (ἐξέβαλον ἔξω τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος), where they killed him (καὶ ἀπέκτειναν).  The meaning of this parable was becoming clearer.  The landowner was God the Father.  The vineyard was Israel.  The tenants were the Jewish religious leaders.  The slaves were the Israelite prophets.  Jesus was the beloved son of the Father.  He was killed either outside of Jerusalem, the vineyard, or thrown out after his death.  Clearly, Jesus would not have to explain this parable to his disciples and apostles.  Did you get the meaning of this story?

The great dinner banquet (Lk 14:16-14:16)

“Then Jesus said to him.

‘Someone gave

A great dinner banquet.

He invited

Many people.’”

 

ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Ἄνθρωπός τις ἐποίει δεῖπνον μέγα, καὶ ἐκάλεσεν πολλούς,

 

Luke indicated that Jesus told a parable.  He said to this man (ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Ἄνθρωπός) that someone gave a great dinner banquet (τις ἐποίει δεῖπνον μέγα).  He invited many people (καὶ ἐκάλεσεν πολλούς).  This is somewhat similar to Matthew, chapter 22:2, where instead of “someone” it was “a king” who was giving a great wedding dinner for his son.  There may be a common Q source for this story or parable.  Matthew had Jesus compare the kingdom of heaven (Ὡμοιώθη ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν) to this male king (ἀνθρώπῳ βασιλεῖ) who had prepared a great wedding banquet for his son (ὅστις ἐποίησεν γάμους τῷ υἱῷ αὐτοῦ).  This was an obvious allusion to the king, God the Father, giving a wedding banquet feast for his son, Jesus.  Here in Luke, it was only a great feast.  Both stories have many people being invited to this great feast.  Have you ever been invited to a great dinner banquet?

Jesus was silent (Mk 14:61-14:61)

“But Jesus

Was silent.

He did not answer.

Again,

The high priest

Asked him.

‘Are you

The Messiah Christ?

Are you

The Son of the Blessed One?’”

 

ὁ δὲ ἐσιώπα καὶ οὐκ ἀπεκρίνατο οὐδέν. πάλιν ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς ἐπηρώτα αὐτὸν καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ Σὺ εἶ ὁ Χριστὸς ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Εὐλογητοῦ;

 

This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 26:63.  In Luke, chapter 22:66-70, there was something similar.  However, there was nothing like this in John, chapter 18:19, where there was a discussion of the high priest with Jesus, but more about his teachings.  Mark said that Jesus was originally silent (ὁ δὲ ἐσιώπα).  He did not answer the high priest (καὶ οὐκ ἀπεκρίνατο οὐδέν).  Then the high priest again asked Jesus directly (πάλιν ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς ἐπηρώτα αὐτὸν).  Was he the Messiah Christ (καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ Σὺ εἶ ὁ Χριστὸς)?  Was he the Son of the Blessed One (ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Εὐλογητοῦ)?  Matthew had said that the high priest Caiaphas was going to put him under oath according to the living God.  Jesus was to tell everyone there whether he was the Christ, the Messiah, the Son of God.  Luke indicated that they asked Jesus whether he was the Messiah Christ or the Son of God.  Thus, this was a clear question about the divine claims of Jesus, particularly his messianic Christ role and his relationship to God the Father.

This parable was against the Jewish leaders (Mk 12:12-12:12)

“When they realized

That he had told

This parable

Against them,

They wanted

To arrest Jesus.

But they feared

The crowd.

Thus,

They left him.

They went away.”

 

Καὶ ἐζήτουν αὐτὸν κρατῆσαι, καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν τὸν ὄχλον· ἔγνωσαν γὰρ ὅτι πρὸς αὐτοὺς τὴν παραβολὴν εἶπεν. καὶ ἀφέντες αὐτὸν ἀπῆλθον.

 

This was an admission by Jewish religious leaders, the chief priests and the Pharisees, as named in Matthew chapter 21:45-46, and Luke, chapter 20:19, but not here, about the deteriorating situation.  Mark said that the unnamed “they” were trying or seeking to get a hold of or arrest Jesus (Καὶ ἐζήτουν αὐτὸν κρατῆσαι).  However, they were afraid of the crowd (καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν τὸν ὄχλον).  They realized or knew that Jesus had told this parable against them (ἔγνωσαν γὰρ ὅτι πρὸς αὐτοὺς τὴν παραβολὴν εἶπεν), the wicked evil tenants of the vineyard.  The landowner was God the Father.  The slaves were the Israelite prophets, while Jesus was the son of the Father.  Thus, they left him (καὶ ἀφέντες αὐτὸν) and went away (ἀπῆλθον).  This will not turn out well.

They kill the son (Mk 12:8-12:8)

“They seized him.

They killed him.

They threw him

Out of the vineyard.”

 

καὶ λαβόντες ἀπέκτειναν αὐτόν, καὶ ἐξέβαλον αὐτὸν ἔξω τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος.

 

This parable of the killing of the landowner’s son can be found in Matthew, chapter 21:39, and Luke, chapter 20:15, almost word for word.  Mark indicated that Jesus continued with this story.  Thus, these wicked tenants seized his son (καὶ λαβόντες).  Then they killed him (ἀπέκτειναν αὐτόν).  Finally, they threw him out or cast him out of the vineyard (καὶ ἐξέβαλον αὐτὸν ἔξω τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος).  The meaning of this parable was becoming clearer.  The landowner was God the Father.  The tenants were the Jewish religious leaders.  The slaves were the Israelite prophets.  Jesus was the son of the Father.  He was killed and thrown outside of Jerusalem, the vineyard.  Clearly, Jesus would not have to explain this parable to his disciples and apostles.

The Spirit leads Jesus into the wilderness (Mk 1:12-1:12)

“The Spirit

Immediately drove him out

Into the wilderness.”

 

Καὶ εὐθὺς τὸ Πνεῦμα αὐτὸν ἐκβάλλει εἰς τὴν ἔρημον.

 

Both Matthew, chapter 4:1, and Luke, chapter 4:1, have the Holy Spirit lead Jesus into the desert just like here.  Having just received the Holy Spirit at his baptism with John, this same Holy Spirit immediately drove Jesus out (Καὶ εὐθὺς τὸ Πνεῦμα αὐτὸν ἐκβάλλει) into the wilderness (εἰς τὴν ἔρημον).  The Israelites had been in the wilderness during their exodus from Egypt.  John the Baptist was also preaching and baptizing in the desert wilderness.  The wilderness or the desert was a place of terror, not civilized.  The Holy Spirit and God the Father wanted Jesus to experience the difficulties of this desolate arid land.