Do not plan ahead (Lk 21:14-21:14)

“Make up your minds!

Do not prepare

Your defense

In advance!”

 

θέτε οὖν ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ὑμῶν μὴ προμελετᾶν ἀπολογηθῆναι·

 

Luke indicated that Jesus told them to make up or settle their minds or hearts (θέτε οὖν ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ὑμῶν), so that they did not have to prepare their defense ahead of time (μὴ προμελετᾶν ἀπολογηθῆναι).  This is unique use by Luke of the term προμελετᾶν, that means to premeditate, meditate beforehand, or prepare.  Equivalent passages to this can be found in Matthew, chapter 10:19, and Mark, chapter 13:11.  Mark indicated that Jesus told his disciples not to worry beforehand or be anxious about what to say (μὴ προμεριμνᾶτε τί λαλήσητε), when they were handed over and brought to trial (καὶ ὅταν ἄγωσιν ὑμᾶς παραδιδόντες).  Matthew indicated that Jesus told his disciples not to worry or be anxious (μὴ μεριμνήσητε), when they were handed over (ὅταν δὲ παραδῶσιν ὑμᾶς) to these courts or tribunals.  They should not worry about how or what they should say (πῶς ἢ τί λαλήσητε).  It will be given to them (δοθήσεται γὰρ ὑμῖν) in that hour at that time (ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ) what they should say (τί λαλήσητε).  Luke simply said that they were not to make any preparations for their defense.  Would you like to be prepared before you went to court?

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Give to those who have something already (Lk 19:26-19:26)

“I tell you!

All those who have,

More will be given!

But from those

Who have nothing,

Even what they have

Will be taken away.”

 

λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι παντὶ τῷ ἔχοντι δοθήσεται, ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ μὴ ἔχοντος καὶ ὃ ἔχει ἀρθήσεται.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus responded with a solemn pronouncement (λέγω ὑμῖν).  All those who already have things (τι παντὶ τῷ ἔχοντι), more will be given to them (δοθήσεται).  From those who have nothing (ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ μὴ ἔχοντος), even what they do have (καὶ ὃ ἔχει) will be taken away (ἀρθήσεται).  There was no insistence on equality here.  This was similar to Matthew, chapter 25:29, perhaps indicating a Q source.  Jesus said that this master slave owner rewarded and punished his slaves.  He told them that all those who have, will be given more (τῷ γὰρ ἔχοντι παντὶ δοθήσεται), so that they will have an abundance or overflow of goods (καὶ περισσευθήσεται).  But those who have nothing (τοῦ δὲ μὴ ἔχοντος), even what little they have will be taken away from them (καὶ ὃ ἔχει ἀρθήσεται ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ).  Matthew added more comments that are not in Luke.  As for this worthless slave (καὶ τὸν ἀχρεῖον δοῦλον), he was to be thrown into the outer darkness (ἐκβάλετε εἰς τὸ σκότος τὸ ἐξώτερον), where there would be weeping and gnashing of teeth (ἐκεῖ ἔσται ὁ κλαυθμὸς καὶ ὁ βρυγμὸς τῶν ὀδόντων), the common terms for sadness and mourning.  Thus, the kingdom of heaven will have rewards and punishments.  Do you want to be rewarded or punished in eternal life?

The results of trading (Lk 19:15-19:15)

“This nobleman

Received royal power.

When he returned,

He ordered those slaves,

To whom

He had given the money,

To be summoned.

Thus,

He might find out

What they had gained

By trading.”

 

καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ ἐπανελθεῖν αὐτὸν λαβόντα τὴν βασιλείαν καὶ εἶπεν φωνηθῆναι αὐτῷ τοὺς δούλους τούτους οἷς δεδώκει τὸ ἀργύριον, ἵνα γνοῖ τίς τί διεπραγματεύσατο.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that this nobleman did receive his royal power (καὶ ἐγένετο…αὐτὸν λαβόντα τὴν βασιλείαν) and then he returned home (ἐν τῷ ἐπανελθεῖν).  Once again, only Luke used this term ἐπανελθεῖν that means to return or come back again.  This nobleman ordered those 10 slaves, to whom he had given the money, to be summoned to him (καὶ εἶπεν φωνηθῆναι αὐτῷ τοὺς δούλους τούτους οἷς δεδώκει τὸ ἀργύριον).  He wanted to find out what they had gained by trading (ἵνα γνοῖ τίς τί διεπραγματεύσατο).  Sure enough, this is the only use of the word διεπραγματεύσατο, in all the Greek biblical literature that means to examine thoroughly, to gain by trading, or doing business.  There is an equivalent in Matthew, chapter 25:19, perhaps indicating a Q source.  Jesus said that after a long time (μετὰ δὲ πολὺν χρόνον), the master or lord of these slaves came back (ἔρχεται ὁ κύριος τῶν δούλων ἐκείνων).  He then wanted to settle his accounts with his slaves (καὶ συναίρει λόγον μετ’ αὐτῶν).  Luke had the more colorful language to explain the returning rich man who wanted to see how his slaves had done in their business dealings.  Have you ever traded stocks or other assets to make money?

Light and heavy beatings (Lk 12:48-12:48)

“But the one

Who did not know,

Yet did

What deserved a beating,

Will receive

A light beating.

Everyone

To whom much is given,

Much will be required.

The one

To whom much

Has been entrusted,

Even more

Will be demanded.” 

 

ὁ δὲ μὴ γνοὺς, ποιήσας δὲ ἄξια πληγῶν, δαρήσεται ὀλίγας. παντὶ δὲ ᾧ ἐδόθη πολύ, πολὺ ζητηθήσεται παρ’ αὐτοῦ, καὶ ᾧ παρέθεντο πολύ, περισσότερον αἰτήσουσιν αὐτόν.

 

This is once again, unique to Luke.  He indicated that Jesus said that the one slave who did not know (ὁ δὲ μὴ γνοὺς) the will of his master, yet did the bad things that were worthy of punishment (ποιήσας δὲ ἄξια πληγῶν), also deserved a light beating (δαρήσεται ὀλίγας).  Everyone to whom much is given (παντὶ δὲ ᾧ ἐδόθη πολύ), much will be required (πολὺ ζητηθήσεται παρ’ αὐτοῦ).  The one to whom much has been entrusted (καὶ ᾧ παρέθεντο πολύ), even more will be demanded (περισσότερον αἰτήσουσιν αὐτόν).  Jesus made a distinction between those who knew the will of the master or lord and still disobeyed him, and those who did not know the will of the master but acted badly.  The latter would not be punished as much as those that knew what they should have been doing.  Those who have much, even much more would be required or demanded.  Do you live up to your responsibilities?

Seek the kingdom! (Lk 12:31-12:31)

“Instead!

Strive

For his kingdom!

All these things

Will be given

To you

As well.”

 

πλὴν ζητεῖτε τὴν βασιλείαν αὐτοῦ, καὶ ταῦτα προστεθήσεται ὑμῖν.

 

Luke had Jesus give a simple solution.  Instead of worrying, they were to strive or seek (πλὴν ζητεῖτε) his kingdom (τὴν βασιλείαν αὐτοῦ).  Then all these things would be given to them as well (καὶ ταῦτα προστεθήσεται ὑμῖν).  Once again, Matthew, chapter 6:33, had a similar Jesus saying, indicating a common Q source, as the same theme continued.  Thus, they should seek or strive first (ζητεῖτε δὲ πρῶτον) for the kingdom (τὴν βασιλείαν) and his righteousness (καὶ τὴν δικαιοσύνην αὐτοῦ).  Then all these other things would be taken care of for them (καὶ ταῦτα πάντα προστεθήσεται ὑμῖν).  Do you seek the kingdom of God?

The Holy Spirit (Lk 12:12-12:12)

“The Holy Spirit

Will teach you

At that very hour

What you ought to say.”

 

τὸ γὰρ Ἅγιον Πνεῦμα διδάξει ὑμᾶς ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ὥρᾳ ἃ δεῖ εἰπεῖ

 

Luke had Jesus explain why they should not worry.  The Holy Spirit (τὸ γὰρ Ἅγιον Πνεῦμα) would teach them (διδάξει ὑμᾶς) at that very hour (ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ὥρᾳ) what they ought to say (ἃ δεῖ εἰπεῖ).  Equivalent passages to this can be found in Matthew, chapter 10:20, and Mark chapter 13:11.  Mark indicated that Jesus said that they were to say (τοῦτο λαλεῖτε) whatever would be given to them (ἀλλ’ ὃ ἐὰν δοθῇ ὑμῖν) at that hour (ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ).  They would not be speaking (οὐ γὰρ ἐστε ὑμεῖς οἱ λαλοῦντες), but the Holy Spirit would be speaking (ἀλλὰ τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον) for them.  Matthew indicated that Jesus said that it would be given to them (δοθήσεται γὰρ ὑμῖν) in that hour (ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ) what they should say (τί λαλήσητε).  They would not be speaking (οὐ γὰρ ὑμεῖς ἐστε οἱ λαλοῦντες), but the Spirit of their Father would be speaking through them (ἀλλὰ τὸ Πνεῦμα τοῦ Πατρὸς ὑμῶν τὸ λαλοῦν ἐν ὑμῖν).  In other words, the Holy Spirit, the Spirit of the Father, would speak for them and through them, so that they did not have to worry or prepare anything beforehand.  Luke had the Holy Spirit teaching them, while Mark and Matthew had the Holy Spirit speaking for them.  What do you know about the Holy Spirit?

The sign of Jonah (Lk 11:29-11:29)

“When the crowds

Were increasing,

Jesus began to say.

‘This generation

Is an evil generation.

It asks for a sign.

But no sign

Will be given to it,

Except the sign of Jonah.’”

 

Τῶν δὲ ὄχλων ἐπαθροιζομένων ἤρξατο λέγειν Ἡ γενεὰ αὕτη γενεὰ πονηρά ἐστιν· σημεῖον ζητεῖ, καὶ σημεῖον οὐ δοθήσεται αὐτῇ εἰ μὴ τὸ σημεῖον Ἰωνᾶ.

 

Luke said that the crowds were increasingly pressing (Τῶν δὲ ὄχλων ἐπαθροιζομένων) around Jesus.  Thus, he began to talk (ἤρξατο λέγειν).  He said that this generation was an evil generation (Ἡ γενεὰ αὕτη γενεὰ πονηρά ἐστιν).  They seek signs (σημεῖον ζητεῖ), but no sign will be given to them (καὶ σημεῖον οὐ δοθήσεται αὐτῇ), except the sign of Jonah (εἰ μὴ τὸ σημεῖον Ἰωνᾶ).  This seeking of signs was common among all the synoptic gospel writers, Matthew, chapter 12:38-39, Mark, chapter 8:11-12, and Luke, here.  Matthew said that the Scribes and Pharisees wanted a sign rather than the vague “they” here in Luke.  They called Jesus a teacher or rabbi (Διδάσκαλε).  They wanted to see a sign from Jesus (θέλομεν ἀπὸ σοῦ σημεῖον ἰδεῖν).  Mark said that Jesus was not going to give them any sign at all.  He said that Jesus sighed deeply in his spirit.  He asked them why was this generation seeking a sign?  With a rare solemn proclamation in Mark, Jesus told them point blank that no sign would be given to this generation.  Sometimes miracles were considered heavenly signs, but Mark continued to call miracles works of power and not signs, as other gospel writers sometimes referred to them.  Are you always looking for signs from heaven on what to do?