Luke indicated that Jesus picked on Jerusalem (Ἱερουσαλὴμ Ἱερουσαλήμ). He called it the city that killed its prophets (ἡ ἀποκτείνουσα τοὺς προφήτας). They had stoned those who were sent to them (καὶ λιθοβολοῦσα τοὺς ἀπεσταλμένους πρὸς αὐτήν). Jesus, almost speaking as God, said that he had often desired to gather his children together (ποσάκις ἠθέλησα ἐπισυνάξαι τὰ τέκνα σου), like a hen gathered her brood under her wings (ὃν τρόπον ὄρνις τὴν ἑαυτῆς νοσσιὰν ὑπὸ τὰς πτέρυγας). However, they were not willing (καὶ οὐκ ἠθελήσατε). Both Luke and Matthew chapter 23:37, have this lament about Jerusalem, almost word for word. so that this may be a Q source. Matthew indicated that Jesus addressed Jerusalem (Ἰερουσαλὴμ Ἰερουσαλήμ), saying that it was the city that killed the prophets (ἡ ἀποκτείνουσα τοὺς προφήτας). They stoned those prophets who were sent to it (καὶ λιθοβολοῦσα τοὺς ἀπεσταλμένους πρὸς αὐτήν). God, the Father, or Jesus had often desired to gather her children together (ποσάκις ἠθέλησα ἐπισυναγαγεῖν τὰ τέκνα σου), just like a hen gathers her brood of little chicks under her wings (ὃν τρόπον ὄρνις ἐπισυνάγει τὰ νοσσία αὐτῆς ὑπὸ τὰς πτέρυγας). However, Jerusalem was not willing to do so (καὶ οὐκ ἠθελήσατε). This idea of a mother hen gathering her chicks under her wings can be found in Psalm 17:8 that spoke about hiding in the shadow of her wings and Psalm 91:4 that once again spoke about being covered with wings. The exact incidents of the city of Jerusalem killing prophets cannot be clearly attested. Is there a certain city that you do not like?
Luke indicated that Jesus said that whoever was not with him (Ὁ μὴ ὢν μετ’ ἐμοῦ), was against him (κατ’ ἐμοῦ ἐστιν). Whoever did not gather with him (καὶ ὁ μὴ συνάγων μετ’ ἐμοῦ) was scattering (σκορπίζει). This saying of Jesus is exactly the same, word for word, in Matthew, chapter 12:30, thus indicating a Q source. Either you were with Jesus or against him. There was no in between. Whoever was not with Jesus (ὁ μὴ ὢν μετ’ ἐμοῦ), was against him (κατ’ ἐμοῦ ἐστιν). Whoever did not gather with Jesus (καὶ ὁ μὴ συνάγων μετ’ ἐμοῦ), scatters abroad (σκορπίζει). Either you stood and gathered with Jesus or you were against him and scattered everywhere. The choice was yours. Do you gather with Jesus?
This is more or less a unique saying of Luke, who said that now, more than ever, the word or report about Jesus spread abroad (διήρχετο δὲ μᾶλλον ὁ λόγος περὶ αὐτοῦ,). Many large crowds would gather to hear him (καὶ συνήρχοντο ὄχλοι πολλοὶ ἀκούειν). Then he cured many people of their diseases (αὶ θεραπεύεσθαι ἀπὸ τῶν ἀσθενειῶν αὐτῶν). There is nothing like this in Matthew. Mark, chapter 1:45, on the other hand, said that after this cleansed leper went away, he began to proclaim what had happened to him. Then the news about his cleansing spread around, so that Jesus was no longer able to openly enter into a city or town. He had to stay out in the solitary deserted countryside. Nevertheless, the people came to him from all around the area or from various quarters. The cleansed leper did not keep quiet, so that this led to more consternation for Jesus. Luke was not that explicit, but hinted at it.
Luke has John give this menacing saying that can be found almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 3:12. Thus, this might be a Q source saying, since it is not found in Mark or John. Luke has God, the Lord, as a farmer at harvest time. Luke had John say that this famer has his winnowing fork ready in his hand (οὗ τὸ πτύον ἐν τῇ χειρὶ αὐτοῦ). He was going to clear the threshing floors (διακαθᾶραι τὴν ἅλωνα αὐτοῦ). He was going to gather his wheat into his barn or granary (καὶ συναγαγεῖν τὸν σῖτον εἰς τὴν ἀποθήκην αὐτοῦ). He would then burn up the leftover chaff (τὸ δὲ ἄχυρον κατακαύσει) with an everlasting or unquenchable fire (πυρὶ ἀσβέστῳ). This last phrase was a little different than that of Matthew. Nevertheless, this was a clear warning against the useless ones, who like chaff, would burn in an unstoppable fire.
This parable is unique to Matthew, but there is something similar in Luke, chapter 19:22-23. Jesus indicated that this master was not happy with his slave who hid his talent money. This lord or master responded to this slave (ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ κύριος αὐτοῦ εἶπεν αὐτῷ). He called him a wicked lazy slave. He knew that this master was a hard man, since he reaped where he had not sown (ᾔδεις ὅτι θερίζω ὅπου οὐκ ἔσπειρα). He gathered where he had not scattered (καὶ συνάγω ὅθεν οὐ διεσκόρπισα), repeating his own words. The master then told this slave that he should have at a minimum invested his money with the bankers (ἔδει σε οὖν βαλεῖν τὰ ἀργύριά μου τοῖς τραπεζείταις). Then, at least, when he returned (καὶ ἐλθὼν ἐγὼ ἐκομισάμην), he would have received his money plus the earned interest on it (ἐκομισάμην ἂν τὸ ἐμὸν σὺν τόκῳ). This master was a harsh but generous slave owner.
This parable is unique to Matthew, but there is something similar in Luke, chapter 19:20-21, where the slave had wrapped the money in a piece of cloth. This slave who had received one talent came forward to his master (προσελθὼν δὲ καὶ ὁ τὸ ἓν τάλαντον εἰληφὼς). He said to his master or lord (εἶπεν Κύριε) that he knew that his master was a harsh or hard man (ἔγνων σε ὅτι σκληρὸς εἶ ἄνθρωπος), because he would reap or harvest crops where he had not sown them (θερίζων ὅπου οὐκ ἔσπειρας). He even gathered crops where he had not scattered seeds (καὶ συνάγων ὅθεν οὐ διεσκόρπισας). Thus, this slave said that he was afraid (καὶ φοβηθεὶς), so he went and hid his talent in the ground (ἀπελθὼν ἔκρυψα τὸ τάλαντόν σου ἐν τῇ γῇ). Then he seemed happy to return this one talent worth $4,000,000 US back to his master, as he said “Look! here it is (ἴδε ἔχεις τὸ σόν)!” He was glad to be rid of this burden of protecting this money from possible thieves or robbers.
This is almost word for word, in Mark, chapter 13:27. The Son of Man would send out his angels (καὶ ἀποστελεῖ τοὺς ἀγγέλους αὐτοῦ) with a loud or great trumpet call (μετὰ σάλπιγγος μεγάλης). Thus, the angels were the apostles or sent ones for gathering the chosen ones. The trumpet call was another great traditional Israelite idea to gather the people for one reason or another. These angels would gather his elect or chosen ones (μετὰ σάλπιγγος μεγάλης) from the four winds (ἐκ τῶν τεσσάρων ἀνέμων), from one end of the heavens to the other end (ἀπ’ ἄκρων οὐρανῶν ἕως ἄκρων αὐτῶν). The Son of Man would send his apostolic angels to gather the chosen ones from all over the place.
ὥσπερ γὰρ ἡ ἀστραπὴ ἐξέρχεται ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν καὶ φαίνεται ἕως δυσμῶν, οὕτως ἔσται ἡ παρουσία τοῦ Υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου·
ὅπου ἐὰν ᾖ τὸ πτῶμα, ἐκεῖ συναχθήσονται οἱ ἀετοί.
This is something similar in Luke, chapter 17:23, about the Son of Man coming like lightening, but in a more succinct way. Jesus said that as the lightning comes from the east (ὥσπερ γὰρ ἡ ἀστραπὴ ἐξέρχεται ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν) but flashes or shines in the west (καὶ φαίνεται ἕως δυσμῶν), so the Parousia or the second coming of the Son of Man will happen (οὕτως ἔσται ἡ παρουσία τοῦ Υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου). Wherever the corpse is (ὅπου ἐὰν ᾖ τὸ πτῶμα), there the vultures gather (ἐκεῖ συναχθήσονται οἱ ἀετοί). The Son of Man is a clear reference to Jesus in his return, the Parousia, who would return like a flash of lightening. The vultures or eagles were a reference to the Roman soldiers with their eagle symbols.
Both Luke, chapter 13:34, and Matthew here have this lament about Jerusalem, word for word the same, so that this may be a Q source. Jesus addressed Jerusalem (Ἰερουσαλὴμ Ἰερουσαλήμ), saying that it was the city that killed the prophets (ἡ ἀποκτείνουσα τοὺς προφήτας). They stoned those prophets who were sent to it (καὶ λιθοβολοῦσα τοὺς ἀπεσταλμένους πρὸς αὐτήν). God, the Father, or Jesus had often desired to gather her children together (ποσάκις ἠθέλησα ἐπισυναγαγεῖν τὰ τέκνα σου), just like a hen gathers her brood of little chicks under her wings (ὃν τρόπον ὄρνις ἐπισυνάγει τὰ νοσσία αὐτῆς ὑπὸ τὰς πτέρυγας). However, Jerusalem was not willing to do so (καὶ οὐκ ἠθελήσατε). This idea of a mother hen gathering her chicks under her wings can be found in Psalm 17:8 that spoke about hiding in the shadow of her wings and Psalm 91:4 that once again spoke about being covered with wings. The exact incidents of the city of Jerusalem killing prophets are not clear.
Only Matthew has this explanation about the parable of the weeds, in chapter 13:24-30. Here it is the harvest time, the end times, when the Son of Man would send out his angel reapers or messengers (ἀποστελεῖ ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τοὺς ἀγγέλους αὐτοῦ). These angels or harvesters would collect and gather out of his kingdom (καὶ συλλέξουσιν ἐκ τῆς βασιλείας αὐτοῦ) all the snares or causes of sin (πάντα τὰ σκάνδαλα), the sinners, and those practicing unlawfulness (καὶ τοὺς ποιοῦντας τὴν ἀνομίαν), the evil ones. Then these angel reapers would burn them like the weeds in the parable. They would throw them into the furnace of fire (καὶ βαλοῦσιν αὐτοὺς εἰς τὴν κάμινον τοῦ πυρός), where there would be weeping or lamenting and gnashing or grinding of teeth (ἐκεῖ ἔσται ὁ κλαυθμὸς καὶ ὁ βρυγμὸς τῶν ὀδόντων). This later was the normal form of mourning or behavior of those who were upset or frustrated. The evil weeds would be allowed to grow with the good grain until the end times of the harvest. However, the evil weeds or the evil doers would suffer in fire and frustration as their final reward at the harvest end times.