Late in the day (Lk 9:12-9:12)

“The day was growing

To a close.

The twelve came

To Jesus.

They said.

‘Send the crowd away!

Thus,

They may go

Into the surrounding villages

And the countryside

To lodge

And get provisions.

We are here

In a deserted lonely place.’”

 

Ἡ δὲ ἡμέρα ἤρξατο κλίνειν· προσελθόντες δὲ οἱ δώδεκα εἶπαν αὐτῷ Ἀπόλυσον τὸν ὄχλον, ἵνα πορευθέντες εἰς τὰς κύκλῳ κώμας καὶ ἀγροὺς καταλύσωσιν καὶ εὕρωσιν ἐπισιτισμόν, ὅτι ὧδε ἐν ἐρήμῳ τόπῳ ἐσμέν.

 

Luke said that when the day was growing to a close (Ἡ δὲ ἡμέρα ἤρξατο κλίνειν), the twelve apostles came to Jesus (προσελθόντες δὲ οἱ δώδεκα).  They said to him (ἶπαν αὐτῷ) to send the crowd away (Ἀπόλυσον τὸν ὄχλον), so that they might go into the surrounding villages and the countryside (ἵνα πορευθέντες εἰς τὰς κύκλῳ κώμας καὶ ἀγροὺς) to find lodging and provisions (καταλύσωσιν καὶ εὕρωσιν ἐπισιτισμόν).  They said that they were in a deserted lonely place (ὅτι ὧδε ἐν ἐρήμῳ τόπῳ ἐσμέν).  There were similar indications about this crowd needing to eat in Matthew, chapter 14:15, and Mark, chapter 6:35-36.  Mark said that the disciples wanted to send the crowds home.  After all, there were no fast food places to get something to eat.  However, there were some places in the nearby villages where you could buy some food.  Mark said that when it grew late, Jesus’ disciples came to him.  They told him that they were in a deserted place.  They wanted to send the crowds away, so that they could go into the surrounding region and nearby villages to buy food for themselves.  This seemed like a good or reasonable plan.  Matthew also said that the disciples wanted to send the crowds home.  When it was evening, the disciples came to Jesus.  They told him that there were in a deserted place at a late hour.  They wanted to send the crowds away so that they could go into the nearby villages to buy food for themselves.  Have you ever been in a large crowd without food?

Take nothing (Lk 9:3-9:3)

“Jesus said to them.

‘Take nothing

For your journey!

Take no staff!

Take no bag!

Take no bread!

Take no money!

Do not take

Even an extra tunic!’”

 

καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς Μηδὲν αἴρετε εἰς τὴν ὁδόν, μήτε ῥάβδον μήτε πήραν μήτε ἄρτον μήτε ἀργύριον μήτε ἀνὰ δύο χιτῶνας ἔχειν.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus told the 12 apostles (καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς) to take nothing for their journey (Μηδὲν αἴρετε εἰς τὴν ὁδόν).  They were not to take a staff (μήτε ῥάβδον), a bag (μήτε πήραν), bread (μήτε ἄρτον), or money (μήτε ἀργύριον).  They were not to take even 2 tunics (μήτε ἀνὰ δύο χιτῶνας ἔχειν).  Equivalent passages to this can be found in Matthew, chapter 10:9-10, and Mark, chapter 6:8-9, who is closer to Luke here.  Mark indicated that Jesus told them what they could not bring with them on their mission.  Jesus instructed them that they should not bring anything for their journey.  They could only bring a staff or walking stick, but they could not bring any bread, a bag or a sack, or money in their belts.  Mark said that they should wear sandals and have a walking stick, but without any food or bread.  However, all 3 synoptics agreed that they did not need two tunics, since one would be enough.  Matthew also indicated that Jesus told them what they could not bring with them on their mission.  They were not to bring with them any gold, silver, or copper, in their money belts, since they did not need money.  This was similar to what Mark had said about not bringing any money belts.  They were not to take any bags or sacks for their journey.  They were not to take two tunics, since one would be enough.  They were not to take any sandals or a staff.  However, these laborers did deserve their food.  Mark had said that they should bring a staff or sandals, but not bring food.  Matthew was the opposite.  He said that they were not to bring sandals, but could bring food.  They did not need any money or material things, but they certainly needed something to eat for nourishment.  This was a very strong demand on these 12 missionaries of Jesus.  Do you travel light with few things?

Other women helped (Lk 8:3-8:3)

“Joanna,

The wife of Chuza,

Herod’s steward,

And Susanna,

As well as many others,

Provided for them

Out of their resources.”

 

καὶ Ἰωάνα γυνὴ Χουζᾶ ἐπιτρόπου Ἡρῴδου καὶ Σουσάννα καὶ ἕτεραι πολλαί, αἵτινες διηκόνουν αὐτοῖς ἐκ τῶν ὑπαρχόντων αὐταῖς.

 

Luke also uniquely mentioned Joanna (καὶ Ἰωάνα), the wife of Chuza (γυνὴ Χουζᾶ), Herod’s steward (ἐπιτρόπου Ἡρῴδου), and Susanna (καὶ Σουσάννα).  He also said that many other women (καὶ ἕτεραι πολλαί) provided or ministered for them at table (αἵτινες διηκόνουν αὐτοῖς) out of their means, possessions, or resources (ἐκ τῶν ὑπαρχόντων αὐταῖς).  Joanna shows up again with Mary Magdalene in the resurrection story of Luke, chapter 24:10.  She must have been a woman of means because her husband had an important role at the court of King Herod Antipas of Galilee as his head steward.  The name Susanna only appears here among all the canonical gospels, but a Susanna played a role in the Book of Daniel.  However, there were other women, not explicitly named, who provided for Jesus and his followers with their money or resources.  In other words, there was a small entourage of women who traveled with Jesus, probably providing the food for him and his disciples, since they were not called disciples themselves.  What should be the role of women as followers of Jesus?

Woe to those who are full now (Lk 6:25-6:25)

“Woe to you

Who are full now!

You will be hungry.”

 

οὐαὶ ὑμῖν, οἱ ἐμπεπλησμένοι νῦν, ὅτι πεινάσετε.

 

Luke uniquely indicated that Jesus said that they would be cursed (οὐαὶ ὑμῖν) if they were full now (οἱ ἐμπεπλησμένοι νῦν), using the second person plural.  However, in the future they would be hungry (ὅτι πεινάσετε).  This is the reverse of verse 21, where Luke indicated that Jesus said that the hungry people now (οἱ πεινῶντες νῦν) would be blessed or happy (μακάριοι) and satisfied (ὅτι χορτασθήσεσθε), also using the second person plural.  Here Luke was talking about real hunger for food that would be satisfied.  Those who were not hungry now would be hungry in the future.

Blessed are the hungry (Lk 6:21-6:21)

“Blessed are you

Who are hungry now!

You shall be satisfied.”

 

μακάριοι οἱ πεινῶντες νῦν, ὅτι χορτασθήσεσθε.

 

Luke indicated that Jesus said that the hungry people now (οἱ πεινῶντες νῦν) would be blessed or happy (μακάριοι) and satisfied (ὅτι χορτασθήσεσθε), using the second person plural.  This is somewhat equivalent to Matthew, chapter 5:6, perhaps indicating that these beatitudes may be from the Q source.  There Matthew said the happy, blessed, and fortunate ones (μακάριοι) were those who hungered and thirsted for righteousness (οἱ πεινῶντες καὶ διψῶντες τὴν δικαιοσύνην).  They would not go away empty handed.  They would be satisfied or filled (ὅτι αὐτοὶ χορτασθήσοντ).  Isaiah, chapter 55:1-2 had an invitation to those without money to come to drink and eat.  They could have water, wine, milk and bread.  They would enjoy themselves at this banquet.  Matthew may have been referencing Psalm 107:4-9, where Yahweh had helped a small group of lost Israelites who were hungry and thirsty, while wandering in the desert.  He satisfied their thirst and filled their hunger with good food.  Thus, they gave thanks to Yahweh.  So too, those who hungered and thirsted for righteousness, the right way of doing things, would be satisfied or filled with this righteousness.  However, here Luke was talking about real hunger for food that would be satisfied.  Luke is more concrete, less spiritual.  You are poor and hungry, plain and simple.  You would be blessed, fortunate, happy, and satisfied.

Sharing (Lk 3:11-3:11)

“In reply,

John said to them.

‘Whoever has two coats,

Must share

With anyone

Who has none.

Whoever has food,

Must do likewise.’”

 

ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Ὁ ἔχων δύο χιτῶνας μεταδότω τῷ μὴ ἔχοντι, καὶ ὁ ἔχων βρώματα ὁμοίως ποιείτω.

 

Luke continued with his unique sayings about John and his preaching that are not found elsewhere in the biblical writings.  Luke said that John responded to them (ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς) that whoever had two coats or tunics (Ὁ ἔχων δύο χιτῶνας) must share with someone who has none (μεταδότω τῷ μὴ ἔχοντι).  Whoever has food (καὶ ὁ ἔχων βρώματα), must likewise share their food (ὁμοίως ποιείτω).  John was preaching the idea of sharing clothing and food as a primary action for those who followed John and his teachings about repentance.

The hungry are filled (Lk 1:53-1:53)

“God

Has filled

The hungry

With good things.

He has sent

The rich away

Empty.”

 

πεινῶντας ἐνέπλησεν ἀγαθῶν καὶ πλουτοῦντας ἐξαπέστειλεν κενούς.

 

This canticle of Mary was modeled on that of Hannah in 1 Samuel, chapter 2:4, that praised Yahweh for her son the prophet Samuel.  Luke had Mary elaborate on Hannah’s thought about how the mighty and the rich would stumble, but the low and the poor would succeed.  Mary said that God had filled or satisfied the needy hungry people with good things (πεινῶντας ἐνέπλησεν ἀγαθῶν), while at the same time he had sent away (ἐξαπέστειλεν) the rich people (καὶ πλουτοῦντας) empty handed (κενούς.).  God was going to reverse the human order of rich and poor as far as food was concerned.  The rich would have nothing, but the poor would be satisfied.