They went out to preach everywhere (Mk 16:20-16:20)

“They went out.

They proclaimed

The good news

Everywhere.

The Lord worked

With them.

He confirmed

Their message

By the signs

That accompanied it.”

 

ἐκεῖνοι δὲ ἐξελθόντες ἐκήρυξαν πανταχοῦ, τοῦ Κυρίου συνεργοῦντος καὶ τὸν λόγον βεβαιοῦντος διὰ τῶν ἐπακολουθούντων σημείων.

 

The climax to this long ending of Mark showed what the disciples of Jesus did after the death, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus.  They went out (ἐκεῖνοι δὲ ἐξελθόντες) and preached everywhere (ἐκήρυξαν πανταχοῦ).  The Lord worked with them (τοῦ Κυρίου συνεργοῦντος), as he confirmed their message (καὶ τὸν λόγον βεβαιοῦντος) by the signs that accompanied them (διὰ τῶν ἐπακολουθούντων σημείων).  The followers of Jesus went about preaching the good news all over the place, while Jesus confirmed their work with signs or miracles.

The signs of the believers (Mk 16:17-16:17)

“These signs

Will accompany

Those who believe.

By using my name,

They will cast out demons.

They will speak

In new tongues.”

 

σημεῖα δὲ τοῖς πιστεύσασιν ταῦτα παρακολουθήσει, ἐν τῷ ὀνόματί μου δαιμόνια ἐκβαλοῦσιν, γλώσσαις λαλήσουσιν καιναῖς,

 

Only this long Mark addition has these comments about what the disciples of Jesus would be able to do.  This addition to Mark indicated that Jesus said that these signs (σημεῖα) would accompany (παρακολουθήσει) those who believed (δὲ τοῖς πιστεύσασιν ταῦτα) in the name of Jesus (ἐν τῷ ὀνόματί μου).  They would be able to cast out demons (δαιμόνια ἐκβαλοῦσιν,).  They would also be able to speak in new tongues (γλώσσαις λαλήσουσιν καιναῖς).  Certainly, the early Christians believed that these actions would be important among the followers of Jesus.  They would be able to cast out evil spirits and speak in tongues.

The short ending of Mark (Mk 16:9-16:9)

“These women

Briefly

And promptly told

Those around Peter

All that had been

Instructed to them.

Afterward,

Jesus himself

Sent out

Through them,

From east to west,

The sacred

And imperishable proclamation

Of eternal salvation.”

Πάντα δὲ τὰ παρηγγελμένα τοῖς περὶ τὸν Πέτρον συντόμως ἐξήγγειλαν. Μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα καὶ αὐτὸς ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἀπὸ ἀνατολῆς καὶ ἄχρι δύσεως ἐξαπέστειλεν δι’ αὐτῶν τὸ ἱερὸν καὶ ἄφθαρτον κήρυγμα τῆς αἰωνίου σωτηρίας

The oldest know Latin text was the Codex Bobiensis, from the Bobbio monastery in northern Italy, during the 4th or 5th century CE.  Obviously, this was a later edition, certainly not in the 1st or 2nd century after Jesus.  Nevertheless, it was an attempt to fix up the last sentence of the preceding verse or the original ending of Mark.  This was an attempt to put Peter in charge of a universal church that was present at the time of the original writing of this gospel.  This text says that the women at the tomb reported to the people around Peter briefly and promptly (τοῖς περὶ τὸν Πέτρον συντόμως ἐξήγγειλαν) all that had been instructed or commanded to them (Πάντα δὲ τὰ παρηγγελμένα) at the tomb.  Afterward, Jesus himself, without saying how, sent the followers of Jesus out from east to west (Μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα καὶ αὐτὸς ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἀπὸ ἀνατολῆς καὶ ἄχρι δύσεως ἐξαπέστειλεν δι’ αὐτῶν) to proclaim a sacred and imperishable eternal salvation (τὸ ἱερὸν καὶ ἄφθαρτον κήρυγμα τῆς αἰωνίου σωτηρίας).  This was an attempt to show why the Christians were all over the place.

Peter was confronted a third time (Mk 14:70-14:70)

“Then after a little while,

The bystanders again

Said to Peter.

‘Certainly!

You are one of them!

You are a Galilean!’”

 

καὶ μετὰ μικρὸν πάλιν οἱ παρεστῶτες ἔλεγον τῷ Πέτρῳ Ἀληθῶς ἐξ αὐτῶν εἶ· καὶ γὰρ Γαλιλαῖος εἶ.

 

This is similar to Matthew, chapter 26:73, Luke, chapter 22:59, and John, chapter 18:26, with some changes.  Peter was confronted a 3rd time.  John said that a man recognized, Peter, because he was a relative of the one whose ear Peter had cut off.  Matthew said that after a little while some of the bystanders approached Peter.  Luke said that it was about an hour later when another person came up to Peter.  Mark, like Matthew, said that that after a little while (καὶ μετὰ μικρὸν), some bystanders again said to Peter (ἔλεγον τῷ Πέτρῳ) that he certainly was one of those followers of Jesus (Ἀληθῶς ἐξ αὐτῶν εἶ), because he was from Galilee (καὶ γὰρ Γαλιλαῖος εἶ), a Galilean.  Matthew added that Peter’s accent in his speech betrayed him as a man from Galilee.  For a 3td time, Peter was accused of being a man from Galilee, a follower of Jesus of Nazareth.  You can never escape your accent.

 

Hope that it is not in the winter (Mk 13:18-13:18)

“Pray!

That it may not be

In winter!”

 

προσεύχεσθε δὲ ἵνα μὴ γένηται χειμῶνος·

 

There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 24:20, but not in Luke.  Mark indicated that Jesus said that they should pray (προσεύχεσθε δὲ) that their flight would not happen in the winter (ἵνα μὴ γένηται χειμῶνος).  Matthew added the comment about the Sabbath, since Matthew considered himself and the followers of Jesus as faithful Jews.  However, Mark made no mention about fleeing on the Sabbath.

 

 

Jesus told them not to tell anyone (Mk 9:9-9:9)

“As they were coming down

The mountain,

He ordered them

To tell no one

About what they had seen,

Until the Son of Man

Had been raised

From the dead.”

 

Καὶ καταβαινόντων αὐτῶν ἐκ τοῦ ὄρους διεστείλατο αὐτοῖς ἵνα μηδενὶ ἃ εἶδον διηγήσωνται, εἰ μὴ ὅταν ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστῇ.

 

Once again, we are back at the messianic secret that can be found in all 3 synoptic gospels, Matthew, chapter 16:9, Luke, chapter 9:36, and here in Mark that is closer to Matthew.  Jesus and his 3 disciples came down or descended from the mountain (Καὶ καταβαινόντων αὐτῶν ἐκ τοῦ ὄρους).  He admonished, commanded, instructed, or ordered them (διεστείλατο αὐτοῖς) not to tell anyone about what they had seen (ἵνα μηδενὶ ἃ εἶδον διηγήσωνται) until the Son of Man had been raised from the dead (εἰ μὴ ὅταν ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστῇ).  They would be free to speak about this after the death and resurrection of Jesus, but not before that turning point among the followers of Jesus.

Shake off the dust of your feet (Mk 6:11-6:11)

“If any place

Will not welcome you,

If they refuse

To hear you,

As you leave,

Shake off the dust

That is on your feet

As a testimony

Against them.”

 

καὶ ὃς ἂν τόπος μὴ δέξηται ὑμᾶς μηδὲ ἀκούσωσιν ὑμῶν, ἐκπορευόμενοι ἐκεῖθεν ἐκτινάξατε τὸν χοῦν τὸν ὑποκάτω τῶν ποδῶν ὑμῶν εἰς μαρτύριον αὐτοῖς.

 

Equivalent passages to this can be found in Matthew, chapter 10:14, and Luke, chapter 9:5.  Mark indicated that Jesus said that if any place (καὶ ὃς ἂν τόπος) would not receive them (μὴ δέξηται ὑμᾶς) or listen to their words (μηδὲ ἀκούσωσιν ὑμῶν), they were to leave that place (ἐκπορευόμενοι ἐκεῖθεν).  They should shake off the dust from their feet (ἐκτινάξατε τὸν χοῦν τὸν ὑποκάτω τῶν ποδῶν ὑμῶν), as a witness or testimony against them (εἰς μαρτύριον αὐτοῖς).  This indicated that the dust of that house was useless.  Some orthodox texts have the statement about Sodom and Gomorrah that was in Matthew, chapter 10:15 that had Jesus make a comparison between the places that had rejected them with the famous wicked cities of Genesis, chapter 18:20-19:29, Sodom and Gomorrah.  He said with a solemn statement (ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν) that it would be more tolerable (ἀνεκτότερον ἔσ) for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah (γῇ Σοδόμων καὶ Γομόρρων) on the judgment day (ἐν ἡμέρᾳ κρίσεως) than this place that rejected his disciples (ἢ τῇ πόλει ἐκείνῃ).  They had lacked hospitality to the followers of Jesus, so that they were worse than those terrible cities in Genesis.

Why do people fast? (Mk 2:18-2:18)

“John’s disciples

And the Pharisees

Were fasting.

People came.

They said to him.

‘Why do John’s disciples

And the disciples

Of the Pharisees fast?

But your disciples

Do not fast.’”

 

Καὶ ἦσαν οἱ μαθηταὶ Ἰωάνου καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι νηστεύοντες. καὶ ἔρχονται καὶ λέγουσιν αὐτῷ Διὰ τί οἱ μαθηταὶ Ἰωάνου καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ τῶν Φαρισαίων νηστεύουσιν, οἱ δὲ σοὶ μαθηταὶ οὐ νηστεύουσιν;

 

Luke, chapter 5:33, and Matthew, chapter 9:14, are similar to Mark, so that Mark might be the source of this incident, although there are some differences.  Matthew had only the disciples of John the Baptist ask about fasting.  Mark has this strange combination of the disciples of John the Baptist with the Pharisees who agreed about fasting (Καὶ ἦσαν οἱ μαθηταὶ Ἰωάνου καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι νηστεύοντες).  They wanted to know why the disciples of Jesus did not fast.  The disciples of John seemed to be on the side of the Pharisees, and not followers of Jesus, as they wondered why they and the disciples of the Pharisees were often fasting or abstaining from food (καὶ ἔρχονται καὶ λέγουσιν αὐτῷ Διὰ τί οἱ μαθηταὶ Ἰωάνου καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ τῶν Φαρισαίων νηστεύουσιν), while the disciples of Jesus were not fasting (οἱ δὲ σοὶ μαθηταί οὐ νηστεύουσιν).  Some have traced the descendant followers of John the Baptist to the Mandaeans along the Iraq-Iran border.

The Spirit descended on Jesus (Mk 1:10-1:10)

“Just as he was coming up

Out of the water,

He saw

The heavens

Torn apart.

The Spirit

Descended upon him

Like a dove.”

 

καὶ εὐθὺς ἀναβαίνων ἐκ τοῦ ὕδατος εἶδεν σχιζομένους τοὺς οὐρανοὺς καὶ τὸ Πνεῦμα ὡς περιστερὰν καταβαῖνον εἰς αὐτόν·

 

The role of the Holy Spirit at the baptism of Jesus was very important.  The four gospel stories show what happened to Jesus after he had been baptized Matthew, chapter 3:16, Luke, chapter 3:21-22, and John, chapter 1:32, are almost word for word the same as here.  John did not mention a dove, while Luke called it a bodily form of a dove.  Mark said that just as Jesus was coming up out of the water (καὶ εὐθὺς ἀναβαίνων ἐκ τοῦ ὕδατος), he saw the heavens torn apart (εἶδεν σχιζομένους τοὺς οὐρανοὺς).  The Spirit descended upon him like a dove (καὶ τὸ Πνεῦμα ὡς περιστερὰν καταβαῖνον εἰς αὐτόν).  The heavens opened up or broke open was a theme found among the prophets Isaiah, chapter 63:19, and Ezekiel, chapter 1:1.  As Jesus came up from the water, not during the baptism itself, the Holy Spirit, as a dove, came to stay on Jesus.  Just as the dove after the great flood in Genesis, chapter 8:8-12, heralded a new age, so too Jesus would preach the good news in this new age.  With his prophetic vocation, Jesus was anointed with power to begin his public ministry of healing and exorcising.  The later concept of the anointing of Jesus with the Spirit referred to this action of the dove, after his baptism in the Jordan.  There was a clear distinction between the baptism of Jesus himself, and the specific dove bestowal of the Spirit that followed.  Despite the fact that there was no indication of any real anointing in any of these baptismal accounts of Jesus, the coming of the Spirit, in the form of a dove, was considered a symbolic anointing of Jesus within the Judaic prophetic line.  This incident functioned as the basis for an understanding of Jesus’ metaphorical anointing as “the anointed one,” “Christ.”  This symbolic metaphorical anointing action gathered many of the Hebrew bible strands of a messianic king, a sacerdotal high priest, a servant, and a prophet into this one event.   Within this process, the messianic time began with a pre-figuration of what was going to take place at the later Pentecost event, when the fullness of the Spirit came to all the followers of Jesus.

The baptism of water and the Holy Spirit (Mk 1:8-1:8)

“I have baptized you

With water.

But he will baptize you

With the Holy Spirit.”

 

ἐγὼ ἐβάπτισα ὑμᾶς ὕδατι, αὐτὸς δὲ βαπτίσει ὑμᾶς Πνεύματι Ἁγίῳ.

 

Mark and Matthew, chapter 3:11, are very similar in their description of John the Baptist speaking about baptism.  Mark said that John proclaimed that he was baptizing them with water (ἐγὼ ἐβάπτισα ὑμᾶς ὕδατι).  However, the one to come would baptize them (αὐτὸς δὲ βαπτίσει ὑμᾶς) with or in the Holy Spirit (Πνεύματι Ἁγίῳ).  Matthew added that the one to come would baptize with the Holy Spirit and fire (πυρί).  Even though there is no mention of fire here in Mark, Luke, chapter 3:16, said that the one to come would baptize with the Holy Spirit and fire also.  The role of the Holy Spirit seemed important.  There was a clear difference between the baptism of John and that of the later Christians with or in the Holy Spirit, as if there was some doubt among the earlier followers of Jesus.