“When you hear
Do not be terrified!
Must take place first.
The end will not
ὅταν δὲ ἀκούσητε πολέμους καὶ ἀκαταστασίας, μὴ πτοηθῆτε· δεῖ γὰρ ταῦτα γενέσθαι πρῶτον, ἀλλ’ οὐκ εὐθέως τὸ τέλος.
Luke indicated that Jesus said that when they heard of wars (ὅταν δὲ ἀκούσητε πολέμους) and insurrections (καὶ ἀκαταστασίας), they were not to be terrified (μὴ πτοηθῆτε). These things had to take place first (δεῖ γὰρ ταῦτα γενέσθαι πρῶτον). The end times would not follow immediately (ἀλλ’ οὐκ εὐθέως τὸ τέλος). There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 24:6, and in Mark, chapter 13:7, almost word for word. Mark indicated that Jesus told them that they would hear about wars or battles (ὅταν δὲ ἀκούσητε πολέμους) and rumors of wars (καὶ ἀκοὰς πολέμων). They should not be alarmed (μὴ θροεῖσθε). This was going to happen (δεῖ γενέσθαι). However, this was not the end, since it was not near (ἀλλ’ οὔπω τὸ τέλος). Matthew indicated that Jesus told them that they would hear about wars or battles (μελλήσετε δὲ ἀκούειν πολέμους) and rumors of wars (καὶ ἀκοὰς πολέμων). They should not be alarmed (ὁρᾶτε, μὴ θροεῖσθε). This was going to happen (δεῖ γὰρ γενέσθαι), but the end was not near (ἀλλ’ οὔπω ἐστὶν τὸ τέλος). The idea of strife and rumors of violence and wars was a great prophetic theme with Isaiah, chapter 19:1-4, and Jeremiah, chapter 51:46. Do you often hear about wars and revolutions?
Those who say
That there is
They questioned him.”
Προσελθόντες δέ τινες τῶν Σαδδουκαίων, οἱ ἀντιλέγοντες ἀνάστασιν μὴ εἶναι, ἐπηρώτησαν αὐτὸν
Luke said that some Sadducees (τινες τῶν Σαδδουκαίων), those who say that there is no resurrection (οἱ ἀντιλέγοντες ἀνάστασιν μὴ εἶναι), approached Jesus (Προσελθόντες δέ). They questioned him (ἐπηρώτησαν αὐτὸν). These Sadducees were another Jewish aristocratic group that was tied to the Temple. However, they did not believe in the bodily resurrection, like the Pharisees did. They said that there was no resurrection of the dead. Matthew, chapter 22:23, and Mark, chapter 12:18, are similar to this statement in Luke. Mark said that some Sadducees came to Jesus (Καὶ ἔρχονται Σαδδουκαῖοι πρὸς αὐτόν). They said that there was no resurrection of the dead (οἵτινες λέγουσιν ἀνάστασιν μὴ εἶναι). They too began to question Jesus (καὶ ἐπηρώτων αὐτὸν λέγοντες). Only Matthew had this explicitly happen on the same day (Ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ) as the discussion about the Roman coin. However, the other two gospel stories have it follow the discussion about the role of Caesar. Some Sadducees came to Jesus (προσῆλθον αὐτῷ Σαδδουκαῖοι). They did not believe in the bodily resurrection, since they said that there was no resurrection (λέγοντες μὴ εἶναι ἀνάστασιν). They too came to Jesus to question him (καὶ ἐπηρώτησαν αὐτὸν). What do think about life after death?
“You know the commandments.
‘Do not commit adultery!
Do not murder!
Do not steal!
Do not bear false witness!
Honor your father
τὰς ἐντολὰς οἶδας Μὴ μοιχεύσῃς, Μὴ φονεύσῃς, Μὴ κλέψῃς, Μὴ ψευδομαρτυρήσῃς, Τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου καὶ τὴν μητέρα.
Luke indicated that Jesus said to this ruler that he knew the commandments (τὰς ἐντολὰς οἶδας). Then he listed a few that were “Do not commit adultery (Μὴ μοιχεύσῃς,)!” “Do not murder (Μὴ φονεύσῃς)!” “Do not steal (Μὴ κλέψῃς)!” “Do not bear false witness (Μὴ ψευδομαρτυρήσῃς)!” “Honor your father and your mother (Τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου καὶ τὴν μητέρα)!” Thus, Jesus emphasized which commandments he wanted this man to keep. This can also be found in Mark, chapter 10:19, and Matthew, chapter 19:17-19, but slightly different, since Luke and Mark are closer to each other. Mark said that Jesus gave the classic answer for those who wanted to enter eternal life. They knew the commandments or laws (τὰς ἐντολὰς οἶδας). Follow them! Mark did not have any question about which commandments to follow. Jesus just mentioned some of the commandments. You shall not kill or murder (Μὴ φονεύσῃς)! You shall not commit adultery (Μὴ μοιχεύσῃς)! You shall not steal (Μὴ κλέψῃς)! You shall not bear false witness (Μὴ ψευδομαρτυρήσῃς)! You shall not defraud (Μὴ ἀποστερήσῃς)! Honor your father (Τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου)! Honor your mother (καὶ τὴν μητέρα)! All of these are from the Ten Commandments in Exodus, chapter 20:12-16, and Deuteronomy, chapter 5:16-20. Mark added the comment about not defrauding others that was not in Luke. In Matthew, this person asked Jesus which commandments (λέγει αὐτῷ Ποίας) should he follow. Thus, Jesus responded to him (ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἔφη) directly citing which commandments. You shall not kill or murder (ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἔφη)! You shall not commit adultery (Οὐ μοιχεύσεις)! You shall not steal (Οὐ κλέψεις)! You shall not bear false witness (Οὐ ψευδομαρτυρήσεις)! Honor your father (Τίμα τὸν πατέρα)! Honor your mother (καὶ τὴν μητέρα)! All of these are the same as in Mark and Luke. However, Matthew added something not in the other two gospel stories. This man was to love or esteem his neighbor as himself (καὶ Ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν), that was from Leviticus, chapter 19:18. Do you think that the Ten Commandments are important?
“They will say
Do not go!
Do not follow them!”
καὶ ἐροῦσιν ὑμῖν Ἰδοὺ ἐκεῖ, Ἰδοὺ ὧδε· μὴ ἀπέλθητε μηδὲ διώξητε.
Luke indicated that Jesus remarked that people would tell them (καὶ ἐροῦσιν ὑμῖν) to look here (Ἰδοὺ ἐκεῖ) and there (Ἰδοὺ ὧδε). They were not to go and follow them (μὴ ἀπέλθητε μηδὲ διώξητε). This was similar to earlier in this chapter, 17:21. This is also somewhat similar to Mark, chapter 13:21, and Matthew, chapter 24:23, who were almost word for word to each other. Mark said that Jesus warned his disciples that if anyone said to them that the Messiah Christ was there (καὶ τότε ἐάν τις ὑμῖν εἴπῃ Ἴδε ὧδε ὁ Χριστός), or if they said look here (Ἴδε ἐκεῖ), they were not to believe it (μὴ πιστεύετε). They were not to be misled by rumors about the Christ Messiah. Matthew said that Jesus warned his disciples that if anyone said to them to look because the Messiah Christ was there (τότε ἐάν τις ὑμῖν εἴπῃ Ἰδοὺ ὧδε ὁ Χριστός, ἤ Ὧδε), they were not to believe it (μὴ πιστεύσητε). Many people might lead them astray, by saying that they were the Messiah Christ in order to deceive them. Apparently, there were many deceptive Jewish messianic leaders who were saying that they were the Christ Messiah. John the Baptist was an example of a messianic leader in the 1st century CE. Other political Jewish leaders had messianic ambitions also, especially those who led the revolt against the Romans in the 2nd half of the 1st century. Jesus was warning against all of them. Have you ever been misled by a religious leader?
“Whoever does not carry
And follow me,
Cannot be my disciple.”
ὅστις οὐ βαστάζει τὸν σταυρὸν ἑαυτοῦ καὶ ἔρχεται ὀπίσω μου, οὐ δύναται εἶναί μου μαθητής.
Luke then had Jesus utter this famous saying about whoever does not carry his own cross (ὅστις οὐ βαστάζει τὸν σταυρὸν ἑαυτοῦ) and follow after him (καὶ ἔρχεται ὀπίσω μου), cannot be or is not able to be his disciple (οὐ δύναται εἶναί μου μαθητής). This verse is similar to Matthew, chapter 10:38. Matthew had Jesus repeat this remark that whoever did not take up his cross (καὶ ὃς οὐ λαμβάνει τὸν σταυρὸν αὐτοῦ) and follow after Jesus (καὶ ἀκολουθεῖ ὀπίσω μου,), was not worthy of him (οὐκ ἔστιν μου ἄξιος). Matthew, chapter 16:24, had Jesus tell his disciples (Τότε ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ) that if anyone wanted to become his follower (Εἴ τις θέλει ὀπίσω μου ἐλθεῖν), they would have to deny themselves (ἀπαρνησάσθω ἑαυτὸν). They would have to take up their cross (καὶ ἀράτω τὸν σταυρὸν αὐτοῦ) and follow him (καὶ ἀκολουθείτω μοι). Mark, chapter 8:34, has the carrying of the cross as a condition of discipleship. If you did not take up your cross (καὶ ὃς οὐ λαμβάνει τὸν σταυρὸν αὐτοῦ) and follow after Jesus (καὶ ἀκολουθεῖ ὀπίσω μου), you were not worthy of Jesus (οὐκ ἔστιν μου ἄξιος). This assumes knowledge of the cross and suffering of Jesus. To be a follower of Jesus, you had to follow him and take up his cross. The hanging on the cross was the Roman way of punishment and execution. After the death and resurrection of Jesus, the cross became a symbol of the death of Jesus. Are you willing to take up the cross of Jesus?
“Another person said.
‘I will follow you!
But let me first
To those at my home!’”
Εἶπεν δὲ καὶ ἕτερος Ἀκολουθήσω σοι, Κύριε· πρῶτον δὲ ἐπίτρεψόν μοι ἀποτάξασθαι τοῖς εἰς τὸν οἶκόν μου.
Luke indicated that another person said (Εἶπεν δὲ καὶ ἕτερος) that he would follow Jesus (Ἀκολουθήσω σοι), the Lord (Κύριε), but he first wanted to say farewell (πρῶτον δὲ ἐπίτρεψόν μοι ἀποτάξασθαι) to those at his home (εἰς τὸν οἶκόν μου). This was another unique saying of Luke that was not found in Matthew. Being a disciple of Jesus was not going to be easy. This disciple just wanted to say goodbye to his family. Is your belief in Jesus stronger than your family ties?
“Jesus said to him.
‘Foxes have holes.
Birds of the air
But the Son of Man
To lay his head.’”
καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς Αἱ ἀλώπεκες φωλεοὺς ἔχουσιν καὶ τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ κατασκηνώσεις, ὁ δὲ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου οὐκ ἔχει ποῦ τὴν κεφαλὴν κλίνῃ.
Luke indicated that Jesus responded to this man (καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς) who wanted to follow him. He said to him that foxes have their holes (Αἱ ἀλώπεκες φωλεοὺς ἔχουσιν). Birds of the air have their nests (καὶ τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ κατασκηνώσεις). But the Son of Man (ὁ δὲ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου) has nowhere to lay his head (οὐκ ἔχει ποῦ τὴν κεφαλὴν κλίνῃ). He was homeless. This saying of Jesus is exactly the same in Matthew, chapter 8:20, indicating a possible Q source. Matthew indicated that Jesus responded to this Scribe by telling him that he was homeless. Foxes had foxholes. Birds of the air had nests. However, the Son of Man had nowhere to put his head. The term “Son of Man” expression might be based on the Book of Daniel, chapter 7:13. This Son of Man was given dominion, glory and kingship over all people, nations, and languages. Everyone would serve him, since his kingdom would last forever, and never be destroyed. This has been often interpreted as the coming of the Messiah, the savior. Jesus and his disciples clearly used this term. However, in the Book of Ezekiel, Yahweh used this term for Ezekiel. So that, the “Son of Man” may also mean that Jesus was trying to point out his humanity, like everyone else. Jesus continued to refer to himself in the 3rd person as the Son of Man. Here Jesus had less than foxes or birds, since he had no permanent home on earth. Have you ever been homeless?