Luke indicated that Jesus continued with Psalm 110 that David would make the enemies of the Messiah (ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου) as a footstool (ὑποπόδιον) for his feet (τῶν ποδῶν σου). There is something similar in Mark, chapter 12:36, and Matthew, chapter 22:44. Mark indicated that David would sit there until he put all his enemies under his feet (ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου ὑποκάτω τῶν ποδῶν σου). Matthew quoted the exact same verse of Psalm, 110:1, that he should sit there until he put all his enemies under his feet (ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου ὑποκάτω τῶν ποδῶν σου). Would you like to see all your enemies at your feet?
Luke said that this Pharisee was amazed to see (ὁ δὲ Φαρισαῖος ἰδὼν ἐθαύμασεν) that Jesus did not first wash (ὅτι οὐ πρῶτον ἐβαπτίσθη) before dinner (πρὸ τοῦ ἀρίστου). There is something similar to this in Mark, chapter 7:2-5 and Matthew, chapter 15:2. However, the complaint there was about the disciples of Jesus, not Jesus himself. Matthew said that these Pharisees wanted to know why the disciples of Jesus did not wash their hands before they ate bread. They said that this action was a violation against the tradition of the elders. Mark said that these Pharisees and Scribes had noticed that the disciples of Jesus were eating bread with defiled hands, because they did not wash their hands. These Pharisees and Scribes wanted to know why the disciples of Jesus did not live according to the tradition of the elders. Originally, this practice of washing hands before eating was what the Levites did in the Temple to practice ritual purity as indicated in Exodus, chapter 30:17-21. Yahweh had told Moses that there should be a bronze basin with a bronze stand for washing. Thus, Aaron and his sons should wash their hands and feet when they went into the meeting tent or the altar. The penalty for not washing your hands and feet was death under this perpetual ordinance. However, the Pharisaic oral tradition, or the tradition of the elders, had extended this practice to individual homes. Thus, they were violating the tradition of the elders. Wash your hands! Do you wash your hands before you eat?
Luke indicated that Jesus said to his 12 apostles that wherever they did not receive them or welcome them (καὶ ὅσοι ἂν μὴ δέχωνται ὑμᾶς), as they were leaving that town (ἐξερχόμενοι ἀπὸ τῆς πόλεως ἐκείνης), they were to shake the dust off their feet (τὸν κονιορτὸν ἀπὸ τῶν ποδῶν ὑμῶν ἀποτινάσσετε) as a testimony or witness against them (εἰς μαρτύριον ἐπ’ αὐτούς). Equivalent passages to this can be found in Matthew, chapter 10:14-15, and Mark, chapter 6:11. Mark indicated that Jesus said that if any place would not receive them or listen to their words, they were to leave that place. They should shake off the dust from their feet, as a witness or testimony against them. This indicated that the dust of that house was useless. Some orthodox texts have the statement about Sodom and Gomorrah that was in Matthew, chapter 10:15, where Jesus make a comparison between those places that had rejected them with the famous wicked cities of Genesis, chapter 18:20-19:29, Sodom and Gomorrah. Matthew indicated that Jesus said that if anyone would not receive them or listen to their words, they should leave that house or town. They were to shake off the dust from their feet, indicating that the dust of that house or town was useless. Matthew had Jesus make a comparison between these non-welcoming towns that had rejected them with the famous wicked cities of Genesis. This was a solemn statement that it would be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrah on judgment day than these towns that had rejected his disciples. They had lacked hospitality to the followers of. Jesus, so that they were worse than those terrible cities in Genesis. Do you know a town worse than Sodom and Gomorrah?
Luke said that just then, a man came (καὶ ἰδοὺ ἦλθεν ἀνὴρ) named Jairus (ᾧ ὄνομα Ἰάειρος), a leader of a synagogue (καὶ οὗτος ἄρχων τῆς συναγωγῆς ὑπῆρχεν). He fell at Jesus’ feet (καὶ πεσὼν παρὰ τοὺς πόδας). He begged Jesus (Ἰησοῦ παρεκάλει αὐτὸν) to come to his house (εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ). This episode about the healing of this synagogue leader’s daughter can also be found in Matthew, chapter 9:18 and Mark, chapter 5:22. Matthew never mentioned his name, Jairus, but Mark did, just like Luke here. Mark said that one of the leaders of a synagogue named Jairus came forward. Seeing Jesus, he fell at the feet of Jesus, as if to worship him. Technically, the Jewish synagogue did not have structured roles, but Jairus was obviously an important person in some unnamed synagogue that might have been close by. Matthew only called this man a generic leader or ruler of a synagogue. Apparently, this took place while Jesus was speaking to the people. This unnamed leader came and knelt before Jesus. Certainly, this was an important Jewish person asking Jesus for help. Do you know the leaders in your Church?
Luke said that the people went out to see (ἐξῆλθον δὲ ἰδεῖν) what had happened (τὸ γεγονὸς). When they came to Jesus (καὶ ἦλθον πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν), they found the man (καὶ εὗρον τὸν ἄνθρωπον), from whom all the demons had gone (ἀφ’ οὗ τὰ δαιμόνια ἐξῆλθεν). He was sitting (καθήμενον) at the feet of Jesus (παρὰ τοὺς πόδας τοῦ Ἰησοῦ), as if he were a disciple of Jesus. He was clothed (ἱματισμένον) and in his right mind (καὶ σωφρονοῦντα). They were afraid (καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν). There is something similar in Mark, chapter 5:15, while there is nothing like this in Matthew. Mark said that the people came to Jesus. They saw the demoniac sitting there clothed, and in his right mind or sober minded. This was the very same violent man, whom the legion or thousands of evil spirits had possessed. However, the people were afraid, because of all that happened. Do some stories make you afraid of God?
There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 22:43-44, and Luke, chapter 20:42-43, almost word for word. Mark used Psalm 110:1 as the basis of this question about David and the Messiah Christ. Mark indicated that that Jesus said that David himself (αὐτὸς Δαυεὶδ εἶπεν), inspired by the Holy Spirit (ἐν τῷ Πνεύματι τῷ Ἁγίῳ), spoke about the “Lord (Κύριος).” In Psalm 110:1, David said that the Lord said to his Lord to sit at his right hand (Εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου). He should sit there until he put all his enemies under his feet (ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου ὑποκάτω τῶν ποδῶν σου). The assumption was that David had written the psalms, so that citing Psalm 110 was citing David himself.
This saying about better to be lame than sin can also be found in Matthew chapter 18:8, with some minor changes, since he united the hand and foot together. In a rather harsh statement, Mark indicated that Jesus said that if your foot (καὶ ἐὰν ὁ πούς σου) causes you to stumble or sin (σκανδαλίζῃ σε), cut it off (ἀπόκοψον αὐτόν). It would be better for you to enter life lame (καλόν ἐστίν σε εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν ζωὴν χωλόν) than to have two feet (ἢ τοὺς δύο πόδας) but thrown into Gehenna or hell (ἔχοντα βληθῆναι εἰς τὴν γέενναν). The Greek word for hell was “γέενναν” or the English Gehenna, based on the Hebrew word Gehinnom. That was the name of the valley south of Jerusalem where burning child sacrifices would take place. Whatever, the temptation, stumbling block, or snare was, get rid of it, even if it was one of your own feet.
This is unique to Mark, who said that Jesus took the boy by the hand (ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς κρατήσας τῆς χειρὸς αὐτοῦ). He lifted him up (ἤγειρεν αὐτόν) so that he rose up, able to stand up by himself (καὶ ἀνέστη). The boy was not dead. Jesus helped him to get to his feet.
Matthew, chapter 15:25, has something similar. Mark did not initially identify this woman. However, Mark said that a woman immediately heard about Jesus (ἀλλ’ εὐθὺς ἀκούσασα γυνὴ περὶ αὐτοῦ). She had a little daughter with an unclean spirit, possessed by a demon (ἧς εἶχεν τὸ θυγάτριον αὐτῆς πνεῦμα ἀκάθαρτον). She was not asking for a cure for herself, but for her daughter. She came and bowed down before Jesus in worship at his feet (ἐλθοῦσα προσέπεσεν πρὸς τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ).
There is nothing like this elsewhere, because Mark was explaining this Jewish practice to his gentile Christian readers. Mark said that the Pharisees (οἱ γὰρ Φαρισαῖοι) and all the Jews (καὶ πάντες οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι) did not eat. unless they had washed their hands (μὴ πυγμῇ νίψωνται τὰς χεῖρας οὐκ ἐσθίουσιν). Not washing hands was considered to be not upholding or a violation against the Jewish tradition of the elders or priests (κρατοῦντες τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν πρεσβυτέρων). The importance of this tradition was clearly seen in Matthew, chapter 15:2, in this more Jewish Christian writing. It is not clear that all Jews followed this tradition, but the Pharisees certainly did. Originally, this practice of washing hands before eating was what the priestly Levites did in the Temple to practice ritual purity as indicated in Exodus, chapter 30:17-21. Yahweh had told Moses that there should be a bronze basin with a bronze stand for washing. Thus, Aaron and his sons should wash their hands and feet when they went into the meeting tent or the altar. The penalty for not washing your hands and feet was death under this perpetual ordinance. However, the Pharisaic oral tradition, or the tradition of the elders, had extended this practice to individual and their own homes.